Detoxification And Biotransformation Of Xenobiotics Ppt To Pdf
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The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. Xenobiotics are chemicals found in organisms, but not expected to be produced or present in them; or they are chemicals found in much higher concentrations than usual. There are number of factors which alter the rate of Xenobiotics absorption which include diet, motility of intestine, interference with gastro intestinal flora, changes in the rate of gastric emptying, age, and the dissolution rate. Xenobiotics are metabolised by biotransformation or detoxification reactions and they are classified into phase one and phase two reactions. Phase one reactions include oxidations reaction, reduction, hydrolysis and phase two reactions include sulfation, acetylation, methylation and conjugation with glucronic acid, glutathione and glycine.
Detoxification or detoxication detox for short  is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism , including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver. Additionally, it can refer to the period of drug withdrawal during which an organism returns to homeostasis after long-term use of an addictive substance. Many alternative medicine practitioners promote various types of detoxification such as detoxification diets. Scientists have described these as a "waste of time and money". The liver and kidney are naturally capable of detox, as are intracellular specifically, inner membrane of mitochondria or in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells proteins such as CYP enyzmes. In cases of kidney failure , the action of the kidneys is mimicked by dialysis ; kidney and liver transplants are also used for kidney and liver failure, respectively.
Chronic fatigue, in its various manifestations, frequently co-occur with pain, sleep disturbances and depression and is a non-communicable condition which is rapidly becoming endemic worldwide. However, it is handicapped by a lack of objective definitions and diagnostic measures. This has prompted the World Health Organization to develop an international instrument whose intended purpose is to improve quality of life QOL , with energy and fatigue as one domain of focus. To complement this objective, the interface between detoxification, the exposome, and xenobiotic-sensing by nuclear receptors that mediate induction of biotransformation-linked genes, is stimulating renewed attention to a rational development of strategies to identify the metabolic profiles in complex multifactorial conditions like fatigue. Here we present results from a seven-year study of a cohort of female patients suffering from low to high levels of chronic fatigue, in which phase I and phase II biotransformation was assessed. The biotransformation profiles used were based on hepatic detoxification challenge tests through oral caffeine, acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid ingestion coupled with oxidative stress analyses.
Xenobiotics causing a variety of toxicity in biological systems could be classified as two types, inorganic and organic chemicals. In the class for toxicology, we have encountered some difficulties in explaining the mechanisms of toxicity caused especially by organic chemicals. Here, a simple flowchart was introduced for explaining the mechanism of toxicity caused by organic xenobiotics, as the central dogma of molecular biology.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Biotransformation is the metabolic conversion of endogenous and xenobiotic chemicals to more water-soluble compounds. Xenobiotic biotransformation is accomplished by a limited number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. Phase I reactions involve hydrolysis, reduction, and oxidation. Phase II biotransformation reactions include glucuronidation, sulfonation more commonly called sulfation , acetylation, methylation, and conjugation with glutathione mercapturic acid synthesis , which usually result in increased hydrophilicity and elimination.
Transcriptional regulation of xenobiotic detoxification in Drosophila. PubMed Central. Living organisms, from bacteria to humans, display a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure, inducing enzymes and transporters that facilitate detoxification.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Describe the two general phases of xenobiotic metabolism, the first involving mainly hydroxylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P species and the second conjugation reactions catalyzed by various enzymes. Appreciate that xenobiotics can cause pharmacologic, toxic, immunologic, and carcinogenic effects. We are exposed to a wide variety of foreign chemicals xenobiotics , both naturally occurring compounds in plant foods, and synthetic compounds in medicines, food additives, and environmental pollutants. Knowledge of the metabolism of xenobiotics is essential for an understanding of pharmacology and therapeutics, toxicology, and the management of disease. All these areas involve either the administration of, or exposure to, xenobiotics.