# Points And Lines In Computer Graphics Pdf

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*In object-oriented programming, a class that is meant to be used only as a basis for subclasses. Objects can be created from the subclasses, but not from the abstract class itself. The purpose of an abstract class is to define the properties and behaviors that all of its subclasses have in common.*

*We develop a unified framework for combining point and line samples in direct lighting calculations. While line samples have proven beneficial in a variety of rendering contexts, their application in direct lighting has been limited due to a lack of formulas for evaluating advanced BRDFs along a line and performance tied to the orientation of occluders in the scene.*

We provide complete computer graphics pdf. Computer Graphics lecture notes include computer graphics notes, computer graphics book, computer graphics courses, computer graphics syllabus , computer graphics question paper, MCQ, case study, computer graphics interview questions and available in computer graphics pdf form. So, students can able to download computer graphics notes pdf. Computer Graphics Notes can be downloaded in computer graphics pdf from the below article. Detailed computer graphics syllabus as prescribed by various Universities and colleges in India are as under.

## Computer Graphics Tutorial

In computer graphics , a line drawing algorithm is an algorithm for approximating a line segment on discrete graphical media, such as pixel -based displays and printers. On such media, line drawing requires an approximation in nontrivial cases. Basic algorithms rasterize lines in one color. A better representation with multiple color gradations requires an advanced process, spatial anti-aliasing. On continuous media, by contrast, no algorithm is necessary to draw a line. For example, oscilloscopes use natural phenomena to draw lines and curves. Its inefficiency stems from the number of operations and the use of floating-point calculations.

## Bresenham's Line Algorithm

A computer Graphics can be anything like beautiful scenery, images, terrain, trees, or anything else that we can imagine, however all these computer graphics are made up of the most basic components of Computer Graphics that are called Graphics Output Primitive or simply primitive. The Primitives are the simple geometric functions that are used to generate various Computer Graphics required by the User. Some most basic Output primitives are point-position pixel , and a straight line. However different Graphic packages offers different output primitives like a rectangle, conic section, circle, spline curve or may be a surface. Once it is specified what picture is to be displayed, various locations are converted into integer pixel positions within the frame buffer and various functions are used to generate the picture on the two dimensional co ordinate system of output display.

## Bresenham's line algorithm

In any 2-Dimensional plane if we connect two points x0, y0 and x1, y1 , we get a line segment. For using graphics functions, our system output screen is treated as a coordinate system where the coordinate of the top-left corner is 0, 0 and as we move down our y-ordinate increases and as we move right our x-ordinate increases for any point x, y. Now, for generating any line segment we need intermediate points and for calculating them we can use a basic algorithm called DDA Digital differential analyzer line generating algorithm. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

These notes emphasize the basic principles needed to design, use, and understand computer graphics systems. Sc, B. Tech CSE, M. Tech branch to enhance more knowledge about the subject and to score better marks in the exam.

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This algorithm is used for scan converting a line. It was developed by Bresenham. It is an efficient method because it involves only integer addition, subtractions, and multiplication operations. These operations can be performed very rapidly so lines can be generated quickly.

*Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of points on a Cartesian plane , which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes. Vector graphics have the unique advantage over raster graphics in that the points, lines, and curves may be scaled up or down to any resolution with no aliasing. The points determine the direction of the vector path ; each path may have various properties including values for stroke color, shape, curve, thickness, and fill.*

Bresenham's line algorithm is a line drawing algorithm that determines the points of an n -dimensional raster that should be selected in order to form a close approximation to a straight line between two points. It is commonly used to draw line primitives in a bitmap image e. It is an incremental error algorithm.

It is difficult to display an image of any size on the computer screen. This method is simplified by using Computer graphics. Graphics on the computer are produced by using various algorithms and techniques.

* Если бы я не нашел черный ход, - сказал Хейл, - это сделал бы кто-то. Я спас вас, сделав это заранее.*

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