Difference Between Graphite And Graphene Pdf

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difference between graphite and graphene pdf

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Graphene Synthesis, Properties, And Applications

Please include attribution to nanowerk. Graphene Description Graphene is the name for an atom-thick honeycomb sheet of carbon atoms. It is the building block for other graphitic materials since a typical carbon atom has a diameter of about 0. Units of graphene are known as nanographene; these are tailored to specific functions and as such their fabrication process is more complicated than that of generic graphene. Nanographene is made by selectively removing hydrogen atoms from organic molecules of carbon and hydrogen, a process called dehydrogenation. Harder than diamond yet more elestic than rubber; tougher than steel yet lighter than aluminium.

Marie Curie 2. Biographene was successfully produced in water from graphite flakes by a simple, rapid, and efficient methodology based on a bioexfoliation technology. The methodology consisted in the application of a lipase, with a unique mechanism of interaction with hydrophobic surfaces, combined with a previous mechanical sonication, to selectively generate lipase-graphene sheets conjugates in water at room temperature. The adsorption of the lipase on the graphene sheets permits to keep the sheets separated in comparison with other methods. Graphene is a material with excellent electrical and thermal properties, very high mechanical strength and elasticity which make it ideal for application in areas such as electronics, materials, biomedicine, biotechnology, etc. In particular, the synthesis of graphene by the chemical reduction of graphene oxide GO by the Hummers method represents at present the most scalable method for the production of few-layer graphene [ 15 , 17 ].

Graphene Synthesis, Properties, And Applications

This introduction to graphene has been created to impart a general understanding of what graphene is, the types of graphene available, as well as synthesis methods and applications of graphene. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon that exists as a two-dimensional planar sheet. One way to think of graphene is as a single atomic graphite layer. Graphene is technically a non-metal but is often referred to as a quasi-metal due to its properties being like that of a semi-conducting metal. Each carbon atom is covalently bonded sp 2 hybridized to three other carbon atoms in a hexagonal array, leaving one free electron per each carbon atom. This free electron exists in a p-orbital that sits above the plane of the material. Each hexagon in the graphene sheet exhibits two pi-electrons, which are delocalized, allowing for an efficient conduction of electricity.

In very basic terms graphene could be described as a single, one atom thick layer of the commonly found mineral graphite ; graphite is essentially made up of hundreds of thousands of layers of graphene. In actuality, the structural make-up of graphite and graphene, and the method of how to create one from the other, is slightly different. In fact, rather than referring to the chemical element and heavy metal, lead, this central core is most commonly made from graphite mixed with clay. The mistake arose when it was first discovered, at which point because it is a form of carbon and contains a similar molecular make up to other members of the carbon group though primarily due to the visual similarities , it was thought to be a form of lead. Graphite is a mineral that naturally occurs in metamorphic rock in different continents of the world, including Asia, South America and some parts of North America. It is formed as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism.

Graphene Description

Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis[J]. Article views PDF downloads Cited by Figures Previous Article Next Article.

Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis

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    This is the same type bonding seen in carbon nanotubes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , and partially in fullerenes and glassy carbon.