American History In Black And White Pdf
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When we decided to devote our April magazine to the topic of race, we thought we should examine our own history before turning our reportorial gaze to others.
- African American History Timeline
- Attacking the Black–White Opportunity Gap That Comes from Residential Segregation
- African Americans
- African American History Timeline
African American History Timeline
As black soldiers returned from Europe after World War One, and southern blacks migrated to northern cities by the thousands; as black writers and artists in Harlem spawned the New Negro movement, and black political spokesmen commanded national attention, "race" announced itself as a rapidly changing factor in postwar America. Racial pride advanced as a new "modern" generation of black leaders achieved self-directed gains in social and political realms.
Racial hatred escalated to new extremes of virulence and destruction as whites resisted the inevitable adjustments to black advancement. The period saw the most horrific racial riots in U.
Here we explore the black-white division through commentary, political cartoons, visual art, and musical drama. For commentary on white-Asian relations in the western U. Collected commentary. This collection offers contemporary commentary on the racial issues in America by black and white writers in essays, editorials, speeches, memoirs, congressional testimony, novels, poetry, political cartoons, drawings, photographs, and other sources.
Selections can be divided among students for research and classroom discussion. How did black and white observers differ in portraying the racial divide of the period? Du Bois, in his piece "Ten Phrases" satirizing white prejudices, uses a racial epithet for blacks. Political cartoons. Eighteen cartoons on the racial issues of the s are presented with guidance for analyzing and discussing the cartoons.
How did white and black cartoonists interpret the racial divide? Compare how black cartoonists and artists adapted whites' racial caricatures see the "black mammy" caricature in the Chicago Defender cartoon and in visual art of the s civil rights era. Cartoons, 19 pp. Aaron Douglas, Charleston , gouache painting, ca. An African American modernist artist active in the Harlem Renaissance, Aaron Douglas produced eight illustrations in gouache a thick heavily pigmented watercolor technique for the English edition of Magie Noir Black Magic , , a short story collection by the French writer Paul Morand that portrayed black-white interactions in Africa, the West Indies, and the U.
In the story Charleston, an American woman raised in Charleston tries to justify her hysteric fear of black men that leads to the brutal murder of a black saxophone player in France—a "purely American tragedy," writes Morand, "acted inside provincial France.
See Discussing Art guidelines. Du Bois on the East St. Louis race riot of In the late s and early s, notably during the "Red Summer" of , devastating race riots erupted across the nation at a level of mass violence unprecedented in American racial history. Many were spurred by white resentment of blacks' increasing employment in the nation's industrial centers outside the South, aggravated as returning white soldiers found factory jobs filled by southern black migrants, and, as in East St.
Louis, Illinois, as African Americans were hired to replace unionized whites striking for higher wages. The mayhem in East St. Louis in July left nine white and one to two hundred black people dead, thousands injured, and vast swaths of black neighborhoods burned to the ground in what was later deemed a "mass lynching. Du Bois penned a heartfelt piece weaving sociological analysis with the epic tragedy of human-wrought cataclysm, excerpted here to highlight his thesis that the riot illuminated "every element of the modern economic paradox.
Why did Du Bois present the background for the riot as an epic tragedy? Clarence Darrow on the Sweet trials of At age 68, he was "determined not to get into any more cases that required hard work and brought me into conflict with the crowd," as he wrote in his memoir, The Story of My Life.
But soon he was central to another sensational trial, another campaign for social justice. Ossian Sweet, a black physician in Detroit, was facing trial for murder with ten codefendants. Having purchased a house in a white neighborhood and anticipating a mob attack, Sweet gathered nine relatives and friends in the house, distributed firearms, and notified the police. While hundreds of rioters converged on the house, throwing rocks and epithets, shots rang out. Sweet's brother Henry fired at the crowd from a second-story window, injuring one man and killing another.
Two trials followed, both heard by all-white juries, a given at the time. The first trial—in which Darrow argued the long-honored precept that "a man's house is his castle" which he is duty-bound to defend—ended in a hung jury. The second trial, in which only Henry Sweet was tried, ended in acquittal.
How did the Sweet trials epitomize the racial divide of the period? How were they a distinct phenomenon of time, place, and persons? Within Our Gates. Responding to postwar racism and racial violence, African American film producer Oscar Micheaux released the second film of his long career, Within Our Gates, in early Directed to a black audience, the film dramatized the realities of segregation, Jim Crow, and race hatred that black citizens had to survive and, with great effort, transcend.
Accused of murdering their white landlord, a Mississippi sharecropping couple is lynched and burned by a white mob. Their children are able to escape, including their adopted daughter Sylvia, a young woman whose attempts to raise money for a black school provide the structure for the multilayered plot see plot summary from Turner Classic Movies.
As Sylvia eludes capture in the forest, she cries "Justice! Where are you? Answer me! How long? With this plot turn Micheaux delivered a direct rebuke to white producer D. Griffith, whose film Birth of a Nation in had glorified the brutal southern repression of newly freed blacks after the Civil War. By mirroring Griffith's film in Within Our Gates , Micheaux challenged Griffith to heed his own warning—harming black citizens "within our gates" will come to damage the nation as a whole.
We recommend that you mute the added music, a Haydn string quartet, which is inappropriate for much of the film's content. Show Boat miscegenation scene. In the standard Broadway musical was an amalgam of comedy and singing skits like vaudeville and musical revue without a unifying plot and avoiding controversial social issues. Then Show Boat opened—with a running plot, songs tied to the action, black and white actors performing in major roles, and a subplot involving miscegenation interracial marriage in Mississippi in the s.
Based on Edna Ferber's best-selling novel of the same name, with music, libretto, and lyrics by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II, Show Boat marked a pivotal moment in American musical theater. To view the crucial miscegenation scene, we direct you to the film adaptation that closely recreated the stage production. In the scene, the town sheriff arrives to arrest the interracial couple, Steve and Julie, for violating Mississippi's anti-miscegenation law.
Alerted to the danger, Steve, who is white, cuts the finger of his wife, a mixed-race woman who had been passing for white, and swallows some of her blood—thus enabling him to claim truthfully that he "had Negro blood" in him. The sheriff departs after the showboat captain stands up for Steve, but the couple is immediately fired from the showboat troupe. For the time, this singular scene would prove sufficiently unsettling, especially to southern audiences, that it was omitted from the silent film version.
How daring was this scene for the s? What does its presence in a Broadway musical indicate about racial relations in the decade? III, Ku Klux Klan 2. Full screen. Discussion Questions What racial issues dominated relations between black and white Americans in the period ? How were they affected by postwar conditions and attitudes, and by the postwar "modernization" of America?
Where did they stand as the U. Study these resources with those on the Ku Klux Klan. To what extent was race central to the s Klan?
Was the Klan the greatest adversary of black Americans in the period? What core issues, tensions, aspirations, and changes defined the black-white division in America in the s that fueled other social-economic divisions of the period?
How did black and white commentators, artists, and cartoonists differ in portraying the racial divide of the period? How did they differ in defining the role of citizens, states, and the federal government in addressing the issues? Compare how black cartoonists and artists adapted whites' racial caricatures in the period, e.
How did Aaron Douglas's painting Charleston interpret the "purely American tragedy" of lynching? Compare Charleston with Douglas's other works for Magie Noir and with his body of work in the s and s see Supplemental Sites below.
What were Douglas's singular artistic devices for portraying racial pride, and the racial divide? How did W. Du Bois characterize the East St. Louis race riot of as reflecting "every element of the modern economic paradox"? Why did he present his analysis as part sociological overview, part epic tragedy? How did journalist-humorist Robert Benchley respond to Du Bois's essay? How did he challenge his white readers to acknowledge Du Bois's indictment of whites' obliviousness racial injustice in America?
On the other hand, how were they a distinct phenomenon of time, place, and persons in the s? Why are the Sweet trials not remembered as are the Scopes trial, the Sacco-Vanzetti trial, the Leopold-Loeb trial, and other highly publicized trials of the decade?
What messages did Micheaux direct to his black audience? Who is the "stranger within our gates"? Why did Micheaux conclude his film with a call to optimism and patriotism: "Be proud of your country, Sylvia"? For , how daring was the miscegenation scene in Show Boat? What does its centrality in a Broadway musical indicate about racial relations in the decade?
How might 21 st -century audiences respond to the scene in revivals of Show Boat? Create a dialogue between one of these pairs of black and white spokesmen represented in this section. Decide the central topic of the dialogue. How will the dialogue end—an agreement, a solution, a shared quandary, an understanding of differing perspectives, a failure to communicate, etc.?
Du Bois and Clarence Darrow W.
Attacking the Black–White Opportunity Gap That Comes from Residential Segregation
Stereotypes are ingrained in the fabric of the USA and coincide with the institution of slavery. The expected behaviors of African-Americans are fueled by stereotypes maintained by the status quo. Throughout US history, the stereotyping of African-Americans, particularly males, has had a negative impact on African-American families and communities. For instance, the belief that African-Americans are unintelligent, lazy, violent, and criminals has affected educational outcomes, employment opportunities, socioeconomic status, and the dismantling of African-American families and communities. Educators, businessmen, and law enforcement often believe these stereotypes, which influences their treatment of African-Americans. The oppression of African-Americans is a critical human rights issue that has to be addressed in social work practice.
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What were their principal characteristics? Left image: Illustration detail in T. Clarkson, Letters on the slave-trade. Courtesy of Jerome S. Handler, Michael L.
African Americans also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans  are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African American History Timeline
- Ну и публика собирается там каждый вечер. ГЛАВА 53 Токуген Нуматака лежал на массажном столе в своем кабинете на верхнем этаже. Личная массажистка разминала затекшие мышцы его шеи. Погрузив ладони в складки жира на плечах шефа, она медленно двигалась вниз, к полотенцу, прикрывавшему нижнюю часть его спины. Ее руки спускались все ниже, забираясь под полотенце.
Это ты, приятель? - Он почувствовал, как рука незнакомца проскользнула к его бумажнику, чуть ослабив хватку. - Эдди! - крикнул. - Хватит валять дурака. Какой-то тип разыскивал Меган.
both Black and White, a counter curriculum that spoke directly to the popular. discourses about the inferior nature of African Americans. Race and Social Studies.
2. Black & White
Фонтейн подошел к ней, едва сдерживая гнев. - Это его прерогатива. Я плачу вам за то, чтобы вы следили за отчетностью и обслуживали сотрудников, а не шпионили за моим заместителем. Если бы не он, мы бы до сих пор взламывали шифры с помощью карандаша и бумаги. А теперь уходите! - Он повернулся к Бринкерхоффу, с побледневшим лицом стоявшему возле двери. - Вы оба.
Они были вместе уже два года, когда Дэвид вдруг сделал ей предложение. Это случилось во время поездки на уик-энд в Смоки-Маунтинс. Они лежали на широкой кровати под балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор. О кольце он позаботиться не успел, слова пришли сами. Именно это и нравилось ей в нем - спонтанность решений. Она надолго прижалась губами к его губам. Он обвил ее руками, и они сами собой начали стягивать с нее ночную рубашку.
Он позвонил и предупредил, что заканчивает работу над алгоритмом, создающим абсолютно стойкие шифры. Я ему не поверил. - Но зачем он вам об этом сообщил? - спросила Сьюзан. - Хотел предложить вам купить этот алгоритм. - Нет. Это был шантаж.
Пора готовить резюме, подумал Бринкерхофф, открывая дверь. - Чед! - рявкнул у него за спиной Фонтейн.