Job Stress And Health Pdf
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- STRESS...At Work
- Stress and Health at the Workplace-A Review of the Literature
- Workplace Stress - General
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Stress can have serious health implications, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and exacerbating medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Stress is unavoidable, but learning to manage it effectively is critical. Stress is a fact of life and can affect individuals in a variety of ways.
At some point in life, every individual experiences some degree of stress; some individuals experience stress more often than others and some have difficulty dealing with stress.
Stress can be manifested from any situation or thought that causes an individual to experience frustration, anger, and nervousness, whereas anxiety is a feeling of fear and apprehension.
There are times when stress, in limited amounts, can be beneficial and encourages an individual to meet a deadline or get a task done. Studies have shown, however, that individuals who experience excessive amounts of stress may exacerbate or increase the risk of developing various medical conditions. Examples of physical symptoms related to stress include fatigue, headache, gastrointestinal GI upset, muscle tension, episodes of dizziness, weight loss or gain, back pain, and teeth grinding.
In addition, many individuals experience problems sleeping. According to the American Psychological Association APA , stress can be categorized as acute, episodic acute, and chronic. Acute stress is the most common form of stress and is short term. It is described as a reaction to an immediate threat, commonly referred to as the fight or flight response. Episodic acute stress is prevalent among those individuals whose lives are constantly chaotic and demanding.
Chronic stress is defined as a type of stress that occurs over a long period of time from either internal or external stressors. Stress has been linked to or can exacerbate various medical conditions, such as asthma, fatigue, back pain, arrhythmias, difficulty breathing, headaches, hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, suppression of the immune system, and fluctuations in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
This can disrupt normal levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is critical for feelings of well-being. Various studies also report that stress can also cause hives and atopic dermatitis. There is scientific evidence indicating that individuals experiencing psychological stress are more prone to developing colds and other infections than their less-stressed peers. While more research needs to be conducted, the American Heart Association reports that various studies suggests that there is a link between the risk of cardiovascular disease and environmental and psychosocial factors.
Numerous studies show job stress is considered to be the greatest source of stress among adults in the United States and that levels of stress have increased significantly over the past few decades. In a report published in the November 24, , online edition of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, a study concluded that men who consistently failed to deal with work-related stress issues were twice as likely to have a myocardial infarction or die of cardiovascular disease than those who managed stress in a constructive way.
In general, workplace factors that may contribute to or exacerbate levels of stress include 2 :. During counseling, pharmacists should take the opportunity to remind patients about the effects of stress on overall health. For example, according to the American Diabetes Association, stress can affect patients with diabetes in 2 ways 13 :. The management of stress should be individualized and based on the severity, type, and frequency of stress. Cognitive behavioral therapy is considered to be one of the most effective means of reducing stress.
Patients experiencing chronic stress or displaying symptoms related to anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, should always be referred to their primary health care provider for further assessment and treatment. Since stress can cause sleep disturbances, some patients may elect to use the various OTC sleep aids on the market or may want to discuss the use of the various prescription sleep aids. Some patients may elect to use OTC analgesics for stress-related headaches.
Patients should be advised to use these products as directed and to contact their primary health care provider if symptoms persist or worsen. In addition, some patients may elect to use alternative or homeopathic products marketed for mild episodes of stress and tension relief. Patients with medical conditions and those taking any other medications should be advised to consult their primary health care provider before using any of these products to avoid possible drug interactions or contraindications.
While sometimes it is easier said than done, it is important for individuals to learn how to effectively manage stress in healthy ways. Individuals with chronic stress should be encouraged to seek help, which may include counseling, finding ways to relax, and discuss the possibility of medications with their physician. In addition, since the health care field can be demanding, health care professionals should find constructive means to manage stress and take care of themselves, so that they can provide quality care to their patients.
As health care professionals, it is our inherent duty to be concerned about the health of our patients and provide them with the necessary information to take active roles in their health. Pharmacists can reassure patients that they are not alone in dealing with stress and provide them with valuable resources on effectively controlling stress, instead of letting stress take control.
Stress and anxiety. Medline Plus website. Accessed February 4, Stress a major health problem in the U. American Psychological Association website.
Accessed February 3, American Academy of Family Physicians website. Stress: The different kinds of stress. Accessed February 11, Stress Patient Education. MD Consult website. Accessed February 5, Exposure to stress: occupational hazards in the hospitals. Stress management: Understand your sources of stress. Mayo Clinic website. Chronic stress and the heart. Effects of stress.
The American Institute of Stress website. Stress and heart disease. American Heart Association website. Accessed February 3, Job stress. American Diabetes Association website. National Institute of Mental Health website. Stress tip sheet. Managing stress for people with heart failure. Yvette C. Terrie is a clinical pharmacy writer based in Haymarket, Virginia. References 1. Help Patients Treat Headaches Safely.
Stress and Health at the Workplace-A Review of the Literature
Stress can have serious health implications, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and exacerbating medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Stress is unavoidable, but learning to manage it effectively is critical. Stress is a fact of life and can affect individuals in a variety of ways. At some point in life, every individual experiences some degree of stress; some individuals experience stress more often than others and some have difficulty dealing with stress. Stress can be manifested from any situation or thought that causes an individual to experience frustration, anger, and nervousness, whereas anxiety is a feeling of fear and apprehension. There are times when stress, in limited amounts, can be beneficial and encourages an individual to meet a deadline or get a task done.
Workplace Stress - General
Numerous studies show that job stress is far and away the major source of stress for American adults and that it has escalated progressively over the past few decades. Increased levels of job stress as assessed by the perception of having little control but lots of demands have been demonstrated to be associated with increased rates of heart attack, hypertension, and other disorders. In New York, Los Angels and other municipalities, the relationship between job stress and heart attacks is so well acknowledged, that any police officer who suffers a coronary event on or off the job is assumed to have a work-related injury and is compensated accordingly including heart attack sustained while fishing on vacation or gambling in Las Vegas.
Job stress, including the influential factors on the health of employees and, reduces employee productivity. This study aimed to examine the relationship between job stress, health literacy and social support with the QWL in a steel plant in Dezful A cross-sectional analytic study, steel plant workers were selected by a systematic random sampling. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
To identify causes of stress at work as well as individual, organisational and personal interventions used by employees to manage stress in public, private and non-governmental organizations NGOs.
Metrics details. While there is considerable theoretical and empirical evidence on how job stress affects physical and mental health, few studies have examined the association between job related stress and health care utilization. Using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from to , this paper examines the association between stressful working conditions, as measured by the job strain model, and the utilization of health care services. A zero inflated negative binomial regression is used to examine the excess health care utilization due to job strain. Separate regressions are estimated for both males and females since studies have shown gender differences in health care utilization. Estimates for the whole population show that high or medium job strain has a positive and statistically significant association with the number of visits to both a general practitioner GP and a specialist SP.
Occupational stress is psychological stress related to one's job. Occupational stress refers to a chronic condition. Occupational stress can be managed by understanding what the stressful conditions at work are and taking steps to remediate those conditions. A number of disciplines within psychology are concerned with occupational stress including clinical psychology , occupational health psychology ,  human factors and ergonomics , and industrial and organizational psychology. A number of psychological theories    at least partly explain the occurrence of occupational stress.
Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion.
Metrics details. Work-related stress and its detrimental effects on human health have rapidly increased during the past several years. It causes many different stress reactions, related diseases and unhealthy behavior among workers, but especially women workers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of the work-related stress model based Workplace Mental Health Promotion Programme on the job stress, social support, reactions, salivary immunoglobulin A and Cortisol levels, work absenteeism, job performance and coping profiles of women workers. Reminder messages, videos, and WhatsApp texts were used at the follow-up stage.
Молодой человек, - вскипел Стратмор, - я не знаю, откуда вы черпаете свою информацию, но вы переступили все допустимые границы. Вы сейчас же отпустите мисс Флетчер, или я вызову службу безопасности и засажу вас в тюрьму до конца ваших дней. - Вы этого не сделаете, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл.
Машина завертелась в облаке выхлопных газов совсем рядом с мотоциклом Беккера. Теперь обе машины, потеряв управление, неслись к стене ангара. Беккер отчаянно давил на тормоз, но покрышки потеряли всякое сцепление с полом. Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена.
Я спущусь вниз и отключу электропитание, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку на плечо Сьюзан и стараясь ее успокоить. - И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать.
Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов. Поскольку за техникой Третьего узла следили самым тщательным образом, она даже не рассматривала такую возможность. Сьюзан встала и быстро подошла к громадному книжному шкафу с техническими руководствами, взяла с полки справочник с прошитым проволочной спиралью корешком и принялась его листать.
Я что, бухгалтер. - Нет, милый, ты директорский автопилот. Надеюсь, не забыл.
Боль в боку немного утихла, да и глаза как будто обрели прежнюю зоркость. Он немного постоял, наслаждаясь ярким солнцем и тонким ароматом цветущих апельсиновых деревьев, а потом медленно зашагал к выходу на площадь. В этот момент рядом резко притормозил мини-автобус. Из него выпрыгнули двое мужчин, оба молодые, в военной форме.
Скорее всего он надеялся, что никого не застанет в Третьем узле. Сьюзан постаралась сохранить спокойствие. - Сегодня суббота, Грег. Могу задать тебе точно такой же вопрос.
Ладно, - процедил Стратмор. - Итак, даже в самых экстремальных условиях самый длинный шифр продержался в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ около трех часов.