Genetically Modified Food Pros And Cons Pdf

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The global area sown to genetically modified GM varieties of leading commercial crops soybean, maize, canola, and cotton has expanded over fold over two decades. Crop production and productivity increased significantly during the era of the adoption of GM crops; some of this increase can be attributed to GM technology and the yield protection traits that it has made possible even if the GM traits implemented to-date are not yield traits per se. GM crops have also been credited with helping to improve farm incomes and reduce pesticide use.

NCBI Bookshelf.

What are the pros and cons of GMO foods?

Many consumers in the European Union, regardless of their level of education or nationality, take a critical distance from genetic engineering in food production. Several surveys have repeatedly shown that their vast majority do not want GM foods. GMOs create a path that leads to advantages and benefits, but also raises extremely important questions. Even over 20 years after the introduction of gene plants, we still lack on an extensive study on effects of genetically modified plants on humans.

Genetic engineering is a tricky issue and not everyone has specialized knowledge. It is therefore particularly easy to influence consumer opinions with little effort. Proponents predict that genetic engineering would increase yields in the fields due to the characteristics above, although this would not reach the desired level of food security. Hunger and malnutrition are issues that often require additional social and political strategies. Efforts are needed to maintain and develop varieties and cultivation methods should be adapted to the local needs together with the local population.

The only efficient way to reduce the proportion of undernourished locally is by using conventional means — for example by cultivating traditional food plants such as cassava root, but also through targeted support projects, educational programs, nutritional advice and political activities.

A multi-dimensional strategy is necessary that creates suitable, specific activities for each situation. In addition, once genetically modified plants have been introduced into the world, they often can no longer be retrieved: they can actively spread, multiplied, passing on their genetically modified properties to other organisms and influence each other, with all, largely unexplored consequences for the environment, animals and people.

All new genetically modified crops have to be checked for harmlessness to humans, animals and the environment before they are approved, but many scientists describe the current regulations for risk assessment as insufficient. Farmers are already using the variety of conventional plants that are adapted to their respective environmental conditions such as drought, flooding or high salinity in the soil. Drought-tolerant crops grown conventionally already exist.

The genetic engineering industry has promised a lot, but so far has not yet presented a solution for a secure return on climate change. New genetic engineering methods , so-called genome editing, are to lead more quickly to plants that can withstand abiotic stress such as drought and high salinity. They are placed in the foreground as the solution to the problem of climate change. In practice, companies continue to focus on commercial applications such as herbicide tolerance or feed quality.

The promotion of alternative research in the sense of sustainable agriculture with more comprehensive, multi-dimensional approaches seems more effective here. Regarding food quality , what we can say is that genetic engineering is not necessary for a healthy diet. In our industrialized nations, the variety and range of good quality food have never been as large and available all year round as it is today.

Thanks to improved food hygiene, quality assurance systems and optimized detection methods, our food had reached a high safety standard even before the introduction of genetic engineering. The savings in weed killers herbicides in the cultivation of herbicide-resistant crops HR crops highlighted by seed companies is controversial. Various studies show that the results are dependent on various factors, such as the growing conditions and climatic conditions at the location.

Figures show a significant increase in spray consumption since the introduction of genetic engineering in the field.

Due to the increasing development of resistance in weeds to the herbicides used, farmers not only have to increase the dose, but they also have to use additional active ingredients. Another consequence is that the genetic engineering industry is developing crops that can withstand higher doses of herbicides or are multi-resistant to various herbicides. Furthermore, the constant confrontation of the insects with the Bt poison certain GM crops produce toxins that are lethal to insects has already led to the emergence of resistant pests.

Instead of using fewer sprays, these pests need to be combated with other or additional pesticides. Created in , the ProTerra Standard has a long-standing history and experience in promoting sustainability in the food and feed supply chain and segregated non-GMO materials.

Among others, one of its aims is to secure the supply of sustainably produced, fully traceable, non-GMO ingredients for feed and food. Besides, our packaging label is a mean by which brands can communicate the non-GMO and sustainability commitment directly to consumers and stakeholders.

January 28, am. PROS Most of the genetically modified plants present the following benefits: Tolerance to atmospheric stress, such as extreme temperatures, salinity, drought and floods; Resistance to viruses, fungi and bacteria; Herbicide tolerance; Insect resistance.

CONS On the other hand, the use of GMOs brings risks, such as: Changes in the interaction between plant and biotic environment: Persistence and invasiveness; Selective advantages or disadvantages; Transfer of genes; Interactions with target organisms e. Changes in the interaction between plant and abiotic environment: Alterations in Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Variations in sensitivity to climatic effects; Modifications in sensitivity to soil abiotic factors salinity, minerals ….

Harm to human or animal health: Toxicological effects; Allergenicity; Changes in nutritional value; Transfer of antibiotic resistance. The Counterpoint: Climate Change Farmers are already using the variety of conventional plants that are adapted to their respective environmental conditions such as drought, flooding or high salinity in the soil. ProTerra Standard Created in , the ProTerra Standard has a long-standing history and experience in promoting sustainability in the food and feed supply chain and segregated non-GMO materials.

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The Pros and Cons of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The previous chapter discussed the difficulty of attributing changes in health outcomes directly to foods from new crop varieties, whether genetically engineered or conventionally bred. Assessing social and economic effects 1 of genetically engineered GE crops is similarly challenging. GE crops were introduced to farmers in rural communities with varying social structures and heterogeneous, and often complex, farming systems. Those systems vary in numerous ways, including type of crop or crops grown, production location, farm size, farmer education, level of government policy support to farms including incentive systems for particular crops or farming practices , and availability of credit to farmers.

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Engineers design plants using genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, to be tougher, more nutritious, or taste better. However, people have concerns over their safety, and there is much debate about the pros and cons of using GMOs. A manufacturer creates GMOs by introducing genetic material, or DNA, from a different organism through a process called genetic engineering. They must meet the same safety requirements as traditional foods. There is some controversy over the benefits and risks of GMO foods. In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of GMO crops, taking into account their potential effects on human health and the environment.


The strongest doubts are raised by genetic modification of cultivated plants and breeding animals – firstly, because GMOs enter the area of food production.


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Many consumers in the European Union, regardless of their level of education or nationality, take a critical distance from genetic engineering in food production. Several surveys have repeatedly shown that their vast majority do not want GM foods. GMOs create a path that leads to advantages and benefits, but also raises extremely important questions. Even over 20 years after the introduction of gene plants, we still lack on an extensive study on effects of genetically modified plants on humans.

The genetic engineering is one of the great marvels of 21st century human. It allowed for precise control over the genetic changes introduced into an organism. Today, we can incorporate new genes from one species into a completely unrelated species through genetic engineering, optimizing agricultural performance or facilitating the production of valuable pharmaceutical substances. Recently, the government of India has examined a proposal on GM mustard seeds despite there being severe opposition to it among environmental activists. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.

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3 Comments

  1. Arno C. 10.04.2021 at 10:45

    Genetically modified organism GMO , organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the generation of desired biological products.

  2. Gabriele L. 10.04.2021 at 19:03

    Genetically modified foods are made by inserting genes of other species into their DNA. Though this kind of genetic modification is used both in plants and animals.

  3. Pelegrino F. 13.04.2021 at 11:56

    GM foods are safe. Changing a few genes here and there does not make a crop toxic or dangerous. •. The meddling with nature argument.