Aspects Of Western Civilization Problems And Sources In History Pdf
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- Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History, Volume 2, 7th Edition
- A brief history of Western culture
- Western Civilization: A Concise History Volume 2
- Historical and cultural aspects of man's relationship with addictive drugs
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Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History, Volume 2, 7th Edition
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches.
Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom , that of WWII , the British Empire , early Islam , and China —and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history , there developed a body of historiographic literature.
The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state —remains a debated question. In the ancient world , chronological annals were produced in civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the Histories of Herodotus , the founder of Greek historiography.
During the Middle Ages , medieval historiography included the works of chronicles in medieval Europe , Islamic histories by Muslim historians , and the Korean and Japanese historical writings based on the existing Chinese model.
During the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment , historiography in the Western world was shaped and developed by figures such as Voltaire , David Hume , and Edward Gibbon , who among others set the foundations for the modern discipline.
The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches, especially social and cultural studies. From to the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.
In the early modern period , the term historiography meant "the writing of history", and historiographer meant " historian ". In that sense certain official historians were given the title " Historiographer Royal " in Sweden from , England from , and Scotland from The Scottish post is still in existence.
Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, and the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question see philosophy of history. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt , in the form of chronicles and annals.
However, no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity , in about the 5th century BCE. The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece , a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region.
Greek historians greatly contributed to the development of historical methodology. The earliest known critical historical works were The Histories , composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus — BCE who became known as the "father of history".
Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. The generation following Herodotus witnessed a spate of local histories of the individual city-states poleis , written by the first of the local historians who employed the written archives of city and sanctuary.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus characterized these historians as the forerunners of Thucydides,  and these local histories continued to be written into Late Antiquity , as long as the city-states survived. Two early figures stand out: Hippias of Elis , who produced the lists of winners in the Olympic Games that provided the basic chronological framework as long as the pagan classical tradition lasted, and Hellanicus of Lesbos , who compiled more than two dozen histories from civic records, all of them now lost.
Thucydides largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon c.
Polybius c. The Chaldean priest Berossus fl. Reports exist of other near-eastern histories, such as that of the Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon ; but he is considered semi-legendary and writings attributed to him are fragmentary, known only through the later historians Philo of Byblos and Eusebius , who asserted that he wrote before even the Trojan war. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, writing at first in Greek, but eventually chronicling their history in a freshly non-Greek language.
It marked the beginning of Latin historical writings. His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history. Biography, although popular throughout antiquity, was introduced as a branch of history by the works of Plutarch c. Tacitus c. His work superseded the older style of the Spring and Autumn Annals , compiled in the 5th century BC, the Bamboo Annals and other court and dynastic annals that recorded history in a chronological form that abstained from analysis.
Sima's Shiji Records of the Grand Historian pioneered the "Annals-biography" format, which would become the standard for prestige history writing in China. In this genre a history opens with a chronological outline of court affairs, and then continues with detailed biographies of prominent people who lived during the period in question.
He also explored the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras. Whereas Sima's had been a universal history from the beginning of time down to the time of writing, his successor Ban Gu wrote an annals-biography history limiting its coverage to only the Western Han dynasty , the Book of Han 96 CE. This established the notion of using dynastic boundaries as start- and end-points, and most later Chinese histories would focus on a single dynasty or group of dynasties.
These became mandatory reading for the Imperial Examinations and have therefore exerted an influence on Chinese culture comparable to the Confucian Classics. More annals-biography histories were written in subsequent dynasties, eventually bringing the number to between twenty-four and twenty-six, but none ever reached the popularity and impact of the first four.
Traditional Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles. In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder. Over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty.
Opinions on the authenticity of the text has varied throughout the centuries, and in any event it was re-discovered too late to gain anything like the same status as the Spring and Autumn. Christian historiography began early, perhaps as early as Luke-Acts , which is the primary source for the Apostolic Age , though its historical reliability is disputed.
In the first Christian centuries , the New Testament canon was developed. The central role of the Bible in Christianity is reflected in the preference of Christian historians for written sources, compared to the classical historians' preference for oral sources and is also reflected in the inclusion of politically unimportant people.
Christian historians also focused on development of religion and society. This can be seen in the extensive inclusion of written sources in the Ecclesiastical History written by Eusebius of Caesarea around and in the subjects it covers. As God's plan encompassed everyone, Christian histories in this period had a universal approach.
For example, Christian writers often included summaries of important historical events prior to the period covered by the work. Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages.
They wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, but this style tended to hamper the analysis of events and causes.
Some writers in the period did construct a more narrative form of history. These included Gregory of Tours and more successfully Bede , who wrote both secular and ecclesiastical history and who is known for writing the Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
During the Renaissance , history was written about states or nations. The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history historia.
Muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammad 's life in the centuries following his death. With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable.
In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the " science of biography ", " science of hadith " and " Isnad " chain of transmission. These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization.
Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah d. The earliest works of history produced in Japan were the Rikkokushi Six National Histories , a corpus of six national histories covering the history of Japan from its mythological beginnings until the 9th century. The first of these works were the Nihon Shoki , compiled by Prince Toneri in The tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagi , a history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times.
It was completed in and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, but also on the Hwarang Segi written by the Silla historian Kim Daemun in the 8th century. The latter work is now lost. In the Song dynasty official Sima Guang completed the Zizhi Tongjian Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government , which laid out the entire history of China from the beginning of the Warring States period BCE to the end of the Five Dynasties period CE in chronological annals form, rather than in the traditional annals-biography form.
This work is considered much more accessible than the "Official Histories" for the Six dynasties , Tang dynasty , and Five Dynasties , and in practice superseded those works in the mind of the general reader. The great Song Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi found the Mirror to be overly long for the average reader, as well as to too morally nihilist, and therefore prepared a didactic summary of it called the Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu Digest of the Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government , posthumously published in It reduced the original's chapters to just 59, and for the rest of imperial Chinese history would be the first history book most people ever read.
Historiography of the Philippines refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to study the history of the Philippines.
It includes historical and archival research and writing on the history of the Philippine archipelago including the islands of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Before the arrival of Spanish colonial powers, the Philippines did not actually exist.
Southeast Asia is classified as part of the Indosphere   and the Sinosphere. The pre-colonial Philippines widely used the Abugida system in writing and seals on documents, though it was for communication and no recorded writings of early literature or history. The discovery of the Butuan Ivory Seal also proves the use of paper documents in ancient Philippines.
The arrival of the Spanish colonizers, pre-colonial Filipino manuscripts and documents were gathered and burned to eliminate pagan beliefs. This has been the burden of historians in the accumulation of data and the development of theories that gave historians many aspects of Philippine history that were left unexplained.
During the Age of Enlightenment , the modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began. Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c. French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past.
Guillaume de Syon argues:. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences.
He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history. Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages.
Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed. Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrism , religious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.
A brief history of Western culture
Publisher: Portland Community College. Overall, I found that the text Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less. Overall, I found that the text satisfactorily covers major themes and events in western history that typically appear in current textbooks on the West, with the welcome addition of additional underrepresented topics and regions. Each of these sections usually also include commentary on revisionist debates, providing a welcome opportunity to engage students in discussions of historiography. The content in many ways reflects prevailing consensus within the field about historiographic debates. Given the enormous scope of the 3-volume text, however, instructors will undoubtedly find sections reflecting outdated research.
Publisher: Portland Community College. The text is very comprehensive in terms of the number of civilizations and cultures covered. In fact, I wonder if even a week semester would suffice to cover them. It is gratifying to see a fairly detailed chapter on Islamic civilization. Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less. The text is also quite comprehensive in its survey of political and military events. Empires like those of the ancient Hittites receive more coverage than would be typical in a Western Civilization survey.
Western Civilization: A Concise History Volume 2
March African historiography has been following divisions, schemes, and sequences set by the Europeans who in the past claimed that there was no such thing as African history and that the history of Africa began with the history of the Europeans in Africa. With this mind-set, in creating what they called African History, the early Eurocentric historians periodized it in sequences as they thought fit and proper.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Historical and cultural aspects of man's relationship with addictive drugs
View larger. Request a copy. Additional order info. Buy this product. K educators : This link is for individuals purchasing with credit cards or PayPal only. This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization.
Language: English Spanish French. Our taste for addictive psychoactive substances is attested to in the earliest human records. Historically, psychoactive substances have been used by i priests in religious ceremonies eg, amanita muscaria ; ii healers for medicinal purposes eg, opium ; or iii the general population in a socially approved way eg, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine. Our forebears refined more potent compounds and devised faster routes of administration, which contributed to abuse.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Aspects of western civilization: problems and sources in history: volume i / edited by Perry M. Rogers.
Historiography , the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical examination. The term historiography also refers to the theory and history of historical writing. Modern historians aim to reconstruct a record of human activities and to achieve a more profound understanding of them. It springs from an outlook that is very new in human experience: the assumption that the study of history is a natural, inevitable human activity. Before the late 18th century, historiography did not stand at the centre of any civilization.
Конечно, он должен был проверить все показатели, но единственная цифра, которая по-настоящему всегда интересовала директора, - это СЦР, средняя цена одной расшифровки. Иными словами, СЦР представляла собой оценочную стоимость вскрытия ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ одного шифра. Если цена не превышала тысячи долларов, Фонтейн никак не реагировал. Тысчонка за сеанс.
Танкадо отдал кольцо. Вот и все доказательства. - Агент Смит, - прервал помощника директор. - Почему вы считаете, будто Танкадо не знал, что на него совершено покушение.
Она пыталась не думать о Дэвиде, но безуспешно. С каждым завыванием сирены слова Хейла эхом отдавались в ее мозгу: Я сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере. Сьюзан казалось, что она сходит с ума. Она уже готова была выскочить из комнаты, когда Стратмор наконец повернул рубильник и вырубил электропитание.
Я сам попытался отправить твой маячок, но ты использовала для него один из новейших гибридных языков, и мне не удалось привести его в действие. Он посылал какую-то тарабарщину. В конце концов пришлось смирить гордыню и вызвать тебя .
У входа возьмешь такси. Беккер вытащил из кармана купюру в тысячу песет и сунул панку в руку. - Премного благодарен, приятель! - крикнул тот ему вслед. - Увидишь Меган, передавай от меня привет! - Но Беккер уже исчез. Двуцветный вздохнул и поплелся к танцующим.
Он стирает только те файлы, которые отвечают определенным параметрам. - Вы хотите сказать, что он не нападет на весь банк данных? - с надеждой спросил Бринкерхофф. - Это ведь хорошо, правда.
Почему? - удивилась Сьюзан. - А если ему нужна помощь. Стратмор пожал плечами.
На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась. Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла.
- Мне показалось, что я уловил в вашей речи бургосский акцент. Сам я из Валенсии. Что привело вас в Севилью. - Я торговец ювелирными изделиями.
Сигналы продолжались. Источник их находился где-то совсем близко. Сьюзан поворачивалась то влево, то вправо.
Я не мог позволить себе роскошь… - Директор знает, что вы послали в Испанию частное лицо. - Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, уже теряя терпение, - директор не имеет к этому никакого отношения. Он вообще не в курсе дела. Сьюзан смотрела на Стратмора, не веря своим ушам.
Он уже хочет уйти. Выходит, мне придется встать. Он жестом предложил старику перешагнуть через него, но тот пришел в негодование и еле сдержался. Подавшись назад, он указал на целую очередь людей, выстроившихся в проходе.
Но это же абсурд, - не согласилась Сьюзан. - Ни один из новых шифрованных файлов нельзя вскрыть без ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть. - Это блистательная рекламная операция, - сказал Стратмор.