# Tools And Techniques Of Financial Statement Analysis Pdf

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Financial analysts also look into these documents to aid them in determining the strengths and weaknesses of a company. Why Use Financial Ratio Analysis? Users of financial statements 3. Long-term financial planning: forecasting long- term fund requirements 4.

## Comparative Financial Statement Analysis Project Report Pdf

The previous article in the Financial Statement Analysis Series gave an introduction to the financial analysis and mentioned the various statements for analysis and the various users who would be interested in the same. In this article, we will take a look at the various tools and techniques used for doing the analysis.

The articles to follow will focus on an elaborate discussion of the various financial statements and will further take up each tool and technique separately and explain them in detail as well.

As discussed in the previous article, there are different users of financial analysis and they may be interested in some tools and techniques and uninterested in the others. Comparative Financial Statement Analysis Horizontal Analysis : As the name suggests, comparative analysis provides a year-on-year review of the various financial statements.

For example, in the Income Statement, the Sales figure may be compared over a period of consecutive years to understand how the sales figures have grown or declined over the year. It should be noted that horizontal analysis compares the internal performance of the company.

Common-size Financial Statement Analysis Vertical Analysis : Vertical analysis is applicable for internal performance review as well as for comparison to peers and bench-marking. In vertical analysis all the items in a particular statement are represented as a percentage of a particular item. Common standard base can easily reveal the internal make-up of financial statements and any proportionate increase and decrease of the same.

Vertical analysis is also put to use for comparison across companies as financial statements are converted to common-size format, which can then be used to compare with competitor or industry averages, highlighting key differences which can then be analyzed. Ratio Analysis: Ratio analysis is the most widely used tool of financial statement analysis.

A ratio gives relationship between two numbers, in this case items in the financial statements. Ratios are popular because they readily allow internal evaluation as well as comparison across firms. The ratios are categorized according to activities or functions they perform or the information they provide. For example, profitability ratios measure the profit making capability of the company. Graphical Analysis: Graphs provide visual representation of the performance that can be easily compared over time.

The graphs may be line graphs, column graphs or pie charts. Trend Analysis: Trend analysis is used to reveal the trend of items with the passage of time and is generally used as a statistical tool. Trend analysis is used in conjunction with ratio analysis, horizontal and vertical analysis to spot a particular trend, explore the causes of the same and if required prepare future projections. Regression Analysis: Regression analysis is a statistical tool used to establish and estimate relationship among variables.

Generally, the dependent variable is related to one or more independent variables. In case of financial statement analysis, the dependent variable may be, say, sales, and it is required to estimate its relationship with the independent variable, say, a macroeconomic factor like Gross Domestic Product. For example, in the Top Down approach of sales forecasting, an analyst would first forecast GDP growth and then establish a relationship between GDP and industry growth rate through regression analysis.

He may then estimate the future sales growth based on the industry growth. As such, regression analysis is widely used in forecasting models. The various tools and techniques are there to enable the decision making.

It should be understood that any particular technique should not be viewed in isolation. Different companies may have different accounting methods and hence, comparison with peers has to be done carefully. Moreover, a holistic use of various techniques should be done to arrive at any conclusion.

Having understood how to do financial analysis, we need to further delve into the financial statements that are used to prepare this analysis. In the next article, we will take a look at the various financial statements that are used for the purpose of Financial Statement Analysis.

She likes to explore and track companies, their performance and senior management. The various tools and techniques available for financial statement are mentioned below.

Below is an example of a Comparative Income Statement. Below is an example of a Common Size Income Statement. Related articles Lack of effective middle management delays problem solving — what can be done? Tofler explains the Ratio Analysis: Activity and Solvency ratios. Follow Us.

## Financial Analysis Tools

Analysts apply several methods in judging the financial stability of a company to decide its valuation in the stock market. Analysing financial statements is one of them. Financial statement analysis is a process of analysing financial condition for decision making purpose. It allows external stakeholders to evaluate the financial performance of the company and its business value. There are three significant financial statements that every company needs to maintain. Let us discuss them one by one. The book value is an important performance metric, which rises or falls with increased or decreased financial activities of the company.

The previous article in the Financial Statement Analysis Series gave an introduction to the financial analysis and mentioned the various statements for analysis and the various users who would be interested in the same. In this article, we will take a look at the various tools and techniques used for doing the analysis. The articles to follow will focus on an elaborate discussion of the various financial statements and will further take up each tool and technique separately and explain them in detail as well. As discussed in the previous article, there are different users of financial analysis and they may be interested in some tools and techniques and uninterested in the others. Comparative Financial Statement Analysis Horizontal Analysis : As the name suggests, comparative analysis provides a year-on-year review of the various financial statements. For example, in the Income Statement, the Sales figure may be compared over a period of consecutive years to understand how the sales figures have grown or declined over the year. It should be noted that horizontal analysis compares the internal performance of the company.

Important tools or techniques of financial statement analysis are as follows. Tools and techniques of financial statement analysis. A brief explanation of the tools or techniques of financial statement analysis presented below. Comparative statements deal with the comparison of different items of the Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheets of two or more periods. As a rule, any financial statement can be presented in the form of comparative statement such as comparative balance sheet, comparative profit and loss account, comparative cost of production statement, comparative statement of working capital and the like.

## Tools or Techniques of Financial Statement Analysis

By Madhuri Thakur. When an analyst, business executive, or student is dealing with a financial issue or wishes to understand the financial implications and economic trade-offs involved in decisions about business investment, operations, or financing, a wide variety of analytical techniques—and sometimes rules of thumb—is available to generate quantitative answers. To choose the appropriate tools from the available alternatives is clearly an important aspect of the analytical task.

Penman , the MCA cash earnings statement dichotomizes between operating as opposed to financial activities. There are software that can be used to run these iterative and simulations. Financial Analysis Project Pdf. For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley4 law contains proposals that increase chief executive officers accountability for financial statements, increases penalty for.

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#### Tools of Financial Analysis

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