History And Spread Of Vipassana Pdf

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The Burmese vipassana movement has its roots in the 19th century, when Theravada Buddhism came to be influenced by western modernism, [1] and some monks tried to restore the Buddhist practice of meditation. Based on the commentaries, Ledi Sayadaw popularized vipassana meditation for lay people, teaching samatha and stressing the practice of satipatthana to acquire vipassana insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain the beginning of awakening and become a stream-enterer.

Vipassana movement

The Burmese vipassana movement has its roots in the 19th century, when Theravada Buddhism came to be influenced by western modernism, [1] and some monks tried to restore the Buddhist practice of meditation. Based on the commentaries, Ledi Sayadaw popularized vipassana meditation for lay people, teaching samatha and stressing the practice of satipatthana to acquire vipassana insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain the beginning of awakening and become a stream-enterer.

It was highly popularized in the 20th century in traditional Theravada countries by Mahasi Sayadaw , who introduced the "New Burmese Satipatthana Method". It also gained a large following in the west, due to westerners who learned vipassana from Mahasi Sayadaw, S. Goenka , and other Burmese teachers. Some also studied with Thai Buddhist teachers, who are more critical of the commentarial tradition, and stress the joined practice of samatha and vipassana.

Most of these teachers combine the strict Burmese approach with the Thai approach, and also other Buddhist and non-Buddhist ideas and practices, due to their broader training and their critical approach of the Buddhist sources. A recent development, according to some western non-monastic scholars, is the understanding that jhana , as described in the nikayas, is not a form of concentration-meditation, but a training in heightened awareness and equanimity, which forms the culmination of the Buddhist path.

According to Buswell, by the 10th century vipassana was no longer practiced in the Theravada tradition, due to the belief that Buddhism had degenerated, and that liberation was no longer attainable until the coming of Maitreya.

The interest in meditation was re-awakened in Myanmar Burma in the 18th century by Medawi — , who wrote vipassana manuals. The actual practice of meditation was re-invented in Theravada-countries in the 19th and 20th centuries and simplified meditation techniques, based on the Satipatthana sutta , the Visuddhimagga , and other texts, emphasizing satipatthana and bare insight were developed.

In the 19th and 20th century the Theravada traditions in Burma, Thailand and Sri Lanka were rejuvenated in response to western colonialism. They were rallying points in the struggle against western hegemonism, giving voice to traditional values and culture. Ironically, the Pali canon became widely accessible due to the western interest in those texts, and the publications of the Pali Text Society. Lay participation in Theravada countries grew strongly in the 20th century, and eventually also reached the west.

A comparable development took place in Thailand, where the Buddhist orthodoxy was challenged by monks who aimed to reintroduce the practice of meditation, based on the Sutta Pitaka. In contrast to the Burmese vipassana teachers, Thai teachers taught vipassana in tandem with samatha.

The practical and doctrinal differences have been heatedly debated within south-east Asian Theravada Buddhism. Since the s, the Vipassana movement has given way to the largely secularized "mindfulness" practice , which has its roots in Zen and vipassana -meditation, and has eclipsed the popularity of vipassana meditation. The various vipassana teachers also make use of the scheme of the insight knowledges , stages of insight which every practitioner passes through in their progress of meditation.

Ledi Sayadaw — prepared the ground for the popularisation of meditation by a lay audience, by re-introducing the practice of meditation, based on the Abhidhamma. Goenka — was a well-known Indian lay teacher in the Ledi-lineage who was taught by Sayagyi U Ba Khin — According to S.

One need not convert to Buddhism to practice these styles of meditation. In the tradition of S. According to Bhikkhu Analayo, "this form of meditation has by now become what probably is the most widely taught form of insight meditation world-wide.

Ruth Denison — was another senior teacher of the U Ba Khin method. Anagarika Munindra studied with both S. Goenka and Mahasi Sayadaw, and combined both lineages. It was introduced to Sri Lanka in , but became popular in the s with the arrival of Burmese monks, [13] where it gained great popularity among the laity, but was also severely criticised because of its disregard of samatta.

Prominent teacher Bhikkhu Bodhi is a student of Nyanaponika. Ajahn Tong was a Thai master who studied for a short time under Mahasi Sayadaw before returning to found his own Vipassana lineage at Chom Tong in Thailand.

The "New Burmese Method" emphasizes the attainment of vipassana , insight, by practising satipatthana , paying close attention to the ongoing changes in body and mind. Gil Fronsdal:. Instead, the meditator practices vipassana exclusively during intensive periods of silent retreat that can last several months with a daily schedule of meditation from a.

Nyanaponika Thera coined the term "bare attention" for the mindfulness practice of the "new Burmese Method. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention":. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" — the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects.

Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude. Mogok Sayadaw taught the importance of the awareness of noticing the 'arising' and 'Passing away' of all experience as the way to gain insight into impermanence. Mogok Sayadaw emphasized the importance of right understanding and that a meditator should learn the theory of Dependent Origination Paticcasamuppada when practicing vipassana.

The Mogok vipassana Method focuses on meditation of Feeling Vedanannupassana and meditation on Mind states Cittanupassana. The method of the Pa Auk Sayadaw is closely based on the Visuddhimagga , a classic Theravada meditation manual. He promotes the extensive development of the four jhanas , states of meditative absorption and focus. The insight element is based on surveying the body by observing the four elements earth, water, fire and wind by using the sensations of hardness, heaviness, warmth and motion.

Since the early s, insight meditation has gained a growing popularity in the western world, [30] and saw a synthesis of various practices and backgrounds, with the growing insight in its roots and doctrinal background, and the introduction of other modern traditions.

A major developments is the popularisation of mindfulness as a technique of its own. Jack Kornfield and Joseph Goldstein taught a series of classes at Naropa University in , and began teaching a series of retreats together for the next two years. The retreats were modeled on and day Goenka retreats, but the technique taught was mainly based on Mahasi Sayadaw's practice with the inclusion of Metta meditation.

Kornfield, and related teachers, tend to de-emphasize the religious elements of Buddhism such as "rituals, chanting, devotional and merit-making activities, and doctrinal studies" and focus on meditative practice.

According to Jack Kornfield,. We wanted to offer the powerful practices of insight meditation, as many of our teachers did, as simply as possible without the complications of rituals, robes, chanting and the whole religious tradition.

Some teachers adhere to a strict 'Burmese approach', in which meditation is equated with kasina concentration meditation, and vipassana is the main aim.

Others, like Bhikkhu Thannissaro, who trained in Thailand, criticise the Burmese orthodoxy, and propagate an integrative approach, in which samatha and vipassana are developed in tandem. Kornfield, who trained in both Burma and Thailand, also propagates an integrative approach. A main criticism of the Burmese method is its reliance on the commentatorial literature, in which vipassana is separated from samatha, and jhana is equated with concentration meditation.

Thanissaro Bhikkhu stresses the fact that the kasina method is marginally treated in the suttas, in which the emphasis is predominantly on jhana. In the suttas, samatha and vipassana are qualities of the mind which are developed together.

This point is also reiterated by Shankman, arguing that samatha and vipassana cannot be separated. Groundbreaking research on early Buddhist meditation has been conducted by Bronkhorst, [33] Vetter, [34] Gethin, [35] [36] Gombrich, [note 5] and Wynne [38] arguing that jhana may have been the core practice of early Buddhism, and noting that this practice was not a form of concentration-meditation, but a cumulative practice resulting in mindful awareness of objects while being indifferent to it.

The "bare attention" propagated in the New Burmese Method has been popularized as mindfulness , starting with Jon Kabat Zinn's mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR , developed in the late s, and continuing in applications such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy MBCT and mindfulness-based pain management MBPM. The modern Bangladeshi teacher Dipa Ma , a student of Anagarika Munindra , was one of the first female Asian masters to be invited to teach in America.

Her message to women and men was you don't have to leave your family to reach high states of spiritual understanding, and she taught a radical inclusiveness. She once said to Joseph Goldstein that "Women have an advantage over men because they have more supple minds It may be difficult for men to understand this, because they are men.

So there is hope for you. It involves five stages, the first of which was the mastery of self-compassion in mind and heart, then continuing to the other stages. The prayer of the first stage, given in English is as follows:. Let me pass my time with good body and happy mind. Indian teacher Ilaichidevi Goenka , was the wife of the Burmese-trained S. Vipassana Meditation Centre. A ten-day retreat involved officials and inmates alike was then tried in India's largest prison Tihar Jail near New Delhi.

Vipassana is being taught in Jail 4 of Tihar Prisons to inmates in two ten day courses every month around the year since onwards.

This program was said to have dramatically changed the behavior of inmates and jailers alike. Inmates who completed the ten-day course were less violent and had a lower recidivism rate than other inmates. This project was documented in the documentary film, Doing Time, Doing Vipassana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Buddhist meditation movement. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. Main articles. Tibetan dissemination. Theravada dissemination.

Zen dissemination. Amidist dissemination. General Buddhism. Mindfulness Mindfulness-based stress reduction Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Mindfulness-based pain management Acceptance and commitment therapy. Buddhism and psychology Mindful yoga. Similar concepts. Main article: Prison contemplative programs. Thailand Ajahn Sobin S.

The ubiquitous notion of mappo or the "final degenerate age of the dharma" served to reinforce the notion that "enlightenment" was not in fact a viable goal for monks living in inauspicious times.

Experiencing sotapatti guarantees you cannot be reborn other than as a human or in heaven, and no more than seven more times.

He said that sotapatti could reached by newcomers in a month. Goenka covers the same ground in detail in his talks during long courses, which have not been published. Nevertheless, a brief survey of the insight knowledges by another student of U Ba Khin can be found in Chit Tin , f.

Skeptical Inquirer.

Vipassana Meditation as Taught by S.N. Goenka

Like Us on Facebook. Download Google App on Playstore. Sixth century B. This was the period when a great benefactor of mankind was born and became renowned as Gotama the Buddha. The Buddha rediscovered the path of Dhamma, the law of nature the path to liberation , leading to the eradication of universal suffering.

Like Us on Facebook. Download Google App on Playstore. With these inspiring words, the Buddha exhorted his first 60 fully liberated arahant disciples, to go in different directions, with loving compassion, to teach Vipassana for the benefit of many, for the welfare of many. The Buddha himself compassionately distributed Dhamma throughout northern India, attracting a large number of people. Yet the fact remains that the Vipassana spread to the masses not only because of this royal patronage but because of the efficacy of the technique itself. Filled with love and compassion, they attracted large numbers of people to the path of liberation. Asoka also sent teachers to as far away as present day Syria and Egypt.

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The Great Buddha’s Noble Teachings The Origin & Spread of Vipassana

Western society has never been more interested in interiority.

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