Theory X And Theory Y Of Douglas Mcgregor Pdf
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- Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
- Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories
- McGregor's Theory X/Y and Job Performance: A Multilevel, Multi-source Analysis
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Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process.
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Quite a few organizations use Theory X today. Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Thus, it does not encourage innovation. Many organizations are using Theory Y techniques. Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction.
Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. Theory Y encourages decentralization of authority, teamwork and participative decision making in an organization. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization.
Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories
This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures. Surveys completed by working adults provide the present data. Convergent and discriminant validities are examined through correlational and regression analyses with measures of proximal, distal, and unrelated constructs. Respondents are relatively young and drawn from one region of the USA. The scale can be used in substantive research, including a more robust test of McGregor's theorizing.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees.
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator.
PDF | Leadership style and organizational performance have been researched on the impact on organizational performance of Theory X and Theory Y type McGregor's seminal work with Theory X and Theory Y. In this study, Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y: Toward a Construct-Valid Measure.
McGregor's Theory X/Y and Job Performance: A Multilevel, Multi-source Analysis
Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production.
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These theories are based on the premise that management has to assemble all the factors of production, including human beings, to get the work done. McGregor believed that management can use either of the needs to motivate his employees, as grouped under theory X and theory Y.