Renewable And Nonrenewable Resources Of Energy Pdf
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This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Have students brainstorm how they used electrical energy today. Divide students into small groups and ask them to brainstorm some ways they used electricity today.
Wind turbines c. The result is a system tainted with uncertainty that is constraining the policy space of countries and consequently hindering sustainable development. Non-renewable resources cannot be regenerated in a reasonable enough time frame and have a limited quantity as a result.
As we noted in Chapter 12, the reserves of non-renewable resources are inexorably diminished as they are extracted from the environment and used in the human economy. This is because non-renewable resources are finite in quantity and their stocks do not regenerate after they are mined. Note that the word reserve has a specific meaning here — it is used to denote a known amount of material that can be economically recovered from the environment that is, while making a profit.
A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources
As we noted in Chapter 12, the reserves of non-renewable resources are inexorably diminished as they are extracted from the environment and used in the human economy.
This is because non-renewable resources are finite in quantity and their stocks do not regenerate after they are mined. Note that the word reserve has a specific meaning here — it is used to denote a known amount of material that can be economically recovered from the environment that is, while making a profit.
Of course, continuing exploration may discover previously unknown deposits of non-renewable resources. If that happens, there is an increase in the known reserves of the resource. Changes in the value of non-renewable commodities also affect the sizes of their economically recoverable reserves. An improvement of technology may have the same effect, for instance, by making it profitable to process ores mine that were previously non-economic.
In addition, the life cycle in the economy of some non-renewable resources, particularly metals, can be extended by recycling. This process involves collecting and processing disused industrial and household products to recover reusable materials, such as metals and plastics. Furthermore, the demand for non-renewable resources is increasing rapidly because of population growth, spreading industrialization, and improving standards of living along with the associated per-capita consumption.
This has resulted in an accelerating demand for non-renewables that must be satisfied by mining additional quantities from the environment. The most important classes of non-renewable resources are metals, fossil fuels, and certain other minerals such as gypsum and potash. The production and uses of these important natural resources are examined in the following sections. Metals have a wide range of useful physical and chemical properties.
They can be used as pure elemental substances, as alloys mixtures of various metals, and as compounds that also contain non-metals. Metals are used to manufacture tools, machines, and electricity-conducting wires; to construct buildings and other structures; and for many other purposes.
The precious metals gold Au , platinum Pt , and silver Ag have some industrial uses such as conductors in electronics , but are valued mostly for aesthetic reasons, particularly to manufacture jewelry. Metals are mined from the environment, usually as minerals that also contain sulphur or oxygen. Deposits of metal-bearing minerals that are economically extractable contribute to the known reserves of metals. An ore is an assortment of minerals that are mined and processed to manufacture pure metals.
The stages in metal mining, processing, manufacturing, and recycling are summarized in Figure Figure Metal Mining and Use. This diagram shows major stages of the mining, manufacturing, use, and re-use of metals, as well as the associated emissions of waste gases and particulates to the environment. Overall, the diagram represents a flow-through system, with some recycling to extend the lifetime of metals within the economy.
Source: Modified from Freedman Ore extraction by mining is the initial step in the process of bringing is metals into the material economy. This may be conducted in surface pits or strip mines, or in underground shaft-mines that may penetrate kilometers underground.
In an industrial facility called a mill, the ore is crushed to a fine powder by heavy steel balls or rods within huge rotating tumblers. The ground ore is then separated into a metal-rich fraction and a waste known as tailings. Depending on the local geography, the waste tailings may be discarded onto a contained area on land, into a nearby lake, or into the ocean see Chapter If the metal-rich fraction contains sulphide minerals, it is next concentrated in a smelter by roasting at high temperature in the presence of oxygen.
This releases gaseous sulphur dioxide SO 2 while leaving the metals behind. The concentrate from the smelter is later processed into pure metal in a facility called a refinery.
The pure metal is then used to manufacture industrial and consumer products. After the useful life of manufactured products has ended, they can be recycled back into the refining and manufacturing processes, or they may be discarded into a landfill.
High-quality ores are geologically uncommon. The deposits that are most economic for mining are typically located fairly close to the surface, and the ores have a relatively high concentration of metals. However, the thresholds vary depending on the value of the metal being processed. Ores with very small concentrations of gold and platinum can be economically mined because these metals are extremely valuable per unit of weight.
In contrast, less-valuable aluminum and iron must be mined as richer ores, in which the metals are present in high concentrations. Data showing the global production of industrially important metals are given in Table Note that for most metals the amounts consumed are somewhat larger than the annual production; this indicates that some of the consumption involves recycled material that has been reclaimed from previous uses. Also note the large increase in production of most metals since Iron and aluminum are the metals produced and used in the largest quantities.
The life index or production life, calculated as the known reserves divided by the annual rate of production of aluminum is about years, and for iron ore it is 58 years Table Life indexes for other metals listed in the table are less, which suggests that their known reserves are being quickly depleted. It is important to remember, however, that those known reserves are increased by new discoveries, changes in technology, and more favourable economics for the resource.
Table Data from: U. Bureau of Mines and U. Geological Survey Much metal production is intended for export. The reserve life life index of Canadian reserves of metals is similar to or shorter than their global values Table Note that bauxite aluminum ore is not mined in Canada, but large amounts are imported for processing.
Data from: Natural Resources Canada a and U. Provincial Production of Selected Metals in Canada, Data from: Natural Resources Canada a. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil-sand, and oil-shale.
These materials are derived from the partially decomposed biomass of dead plants and other organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. The ancient biomass became entombed in marine sediment, which much later became deeply buried and eventually lithified into sedimentary rocks such as shale and sandstone. Deep within those geological formations, under conditions of high pressure, high temperature, and low oxygen, the organic matter transformed extremely slowly into hydrocarbons molecules that are composed only of carbon and hydrogen and other organic compounds.
In some respects, fossil fuels can be considered to be a form of stockpiled solar energy — sunlight that was fixed by plants into organic matter and then stored geologically. Image Because petroleum and other fossil fuels are non-renewable resources, their future reserves are diminished when they are extracted from the environment. This is an oil pump in southeastern Saskatchewan. Source: B. In a geological sense, fossil fuels are still being produced today, by the same processes that involve dead biomass being subjected to high pressure and temperature.
Because the natural geological production of fossil fuels continues, it might be argued that these materials are a kind of renewable resource.
However, the rate at which fossil fuels are being extracted and used is enormously faster than their extremely slow regeneration. Under this circumstance, fossil fuels can only be regarded as being non-renewable. Hydrocarbons are the most abundant chemicals in fossil fuels. However, many additional kinds of organic compounds may also be present, which incorporate sulphur, nitrogen, and other elements in their structure.
Coal in particular is often contaminated with many inorganic minerals, such as shale and pyrite. The most important use of fossil fuels is as a source of energy. They are combusted in vehicle engines, power plants, and other machines to produce the energy needed to perform work in industry, for transportation, and for household use. Fossil fuels are also used to produce energy to heat indoor spaces, an especially important function in countries with a seasonally cold climate. Another key use is for the manufacturing of synthetic materials, including almost all plastics.
In addition, asphaltic materials are used to construct roads and to manufacture roofing shingles for buildings. Coal is a solid material that can vary greatly in its chemical and physical qualities.
The highest quality coals are anthracite and bituminous, which are hard, shiny, black minerals with a high energy density the energy content per unit of weight. Lignite is a poorer grade of coal, and it is a softer, flaky material with a lower energy density. Coal is mined in various ways. If deposits occur close to the surface, they are typically extracted by strip-mining, which involves the use of huge shovels to uncover and collect the coal-bearing strata, which are then transported using immense trucks.
Deeper deposits of coal are mined from underground shafts, which may follow a seam kilometers into the ground. Most coal in North America is extracted by strip-mining. After it is mined, coal may be washed to remove some of the impurities and then ground into a powder. Coal can also be used to manufacture synthetic petroleum. Petroleum crude oil is a fluid mixture of hydrocarbons with some impurities, such as organic compounds that contain sulphur, nitrogen, and vanadium.
Petroleum from different places varies greatly, from a heavy tarry material that must be heated before it will flow, to an extremely light fluid that quickly volatilizes into the atmosphere. Petroleum is mined using drilled wells, from which the liquid mineral is forced to the surface by geological pressure. Often, the natural pressure is supplemented by pumping. A heavy form of petroleum called bitumen is also produced by mining and refining oil- sand, which is extracted in northern Alberta.
Oil-sand deposits that are close to the surface are mined in immense open pits, while deeper materials are treated with steam so they will flow and are then extracted as a heavy liquid using drilled wells. Once extracted, petroleum is transported by overland pipelines, trucks, trains, and ships to an industrial facility known as a refinery, where the crude material is separated into various constituents.
The fractions may be used as a liquid fuel, or they can be manufactured into many useful materials, such as plastics and pigments. The refined fractions include the following:. Natural gas is also extracted using drilled wells. The dominant hydrocarbon in natural gas is methane, but ethane, propane, and butane are also present, as often is hydrogen sulphide.
All forms of energy are a natural resource. Energy resources are categorized as renewable or nonrenewable. Renewable energy resources can be replenished over a relatively short period of time and include resources such as solar, wind, water hydro , biomass and geothermal. Nonrenewable energy resources are available in limited supply and cannot renew at sufficient rates compared to the use of the resource. Examples include coal, nuclear, oil and natural gas. Where does the energy used in our home come from? How is it produced?
The post you are on right now was written in Please see this updated article with more current information, including new sections on climate change and nuclear power. There are nine major areas of energy resources. They fall into two categories: nonrenewable and renewable. Nonrenewable energy resources, like coal, nuclear, oil, and natural gas, are available in limited supplies. This is usually due to the long time it takes for them to be replenished. Renewable resources are replenished naturally and over relatively short periods of time.
The main differences between renewable and nonrenewable resources are the renewable energy can be replenished with a short period of time and Non-renewable energy cannot be replenished with a short period of time. Before moving further on differences lets have an overview of both Renewable and Non-renewable sources of energy first. This is defined as the sources of energy that are produced continuously in nature and are essentially inexhaustible at least in the time frame of human societies. These energy sources replenished themselves naturally in a relatively short time and therefore will always be available.
A non-renewable resource also called a finite resource is a natural resource that cannot be readily replaced by natural means at a quick enough pace to keep up with consumption. The original organic matter, with the aid of heat and pressure, becomes a fuel such as oil or gas. Earth minerals and metal ores , fossil fuels coal , petroleum , natural gas and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are always conserved except in nuclear reactions.
Он смотрел в ее глаза, надеясь увидеть в них насмешливые искорки. Но их там не. - Сью… зан, - заикаясь, начал. - Я… я не понимаю.
Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли. Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей. Как и все криптографы АНБ, Хейл зарабатывал огромные деньги, однако вовсе не стремился держать этот факт при. Он ездил на белом лотосе с люком на крыше и звуковой системой с мощными динамиками.