Lymphatic System And Immunity Pdf

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lymphatic system and immunity pdf

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The lymphatic system is a network of tissues, vessels and organs that work together to move a colorless, watery fluid called lymph back into your circulatory system your bloodstream. The lymphatic system collects this excess fluid, now called lymph, from tissues in your body and moves it along until it ultimately returns it to your bloodstream.

Lymphatic System

The immune system is composed of a variety of different cell types and proteins. The immune system is a wonderful collaboration between cells and proteins that work together to provide defense against infection. These cells and proteins do not form a single organ like the heart or liver. Instead, the immune system is dispersed throughout the body to provide rapid responses to infection Figure 1. Cells travel through the bloodstream or in specialized vessels called lymphatics. Lymph nodes and the spleen provide structures that facilitate cell-to-cell communication.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Blood vessels form a closed circulatory system, whereas lymphatic vessels form a one-way conduit for tissue fluid and leukocytes. In most vertebrates, the main function of lymphatic vessels is to collect excess protein-rich fluid that has extravasated from blood vessels and transport it back into the blood circulation.

The immune system is the complex collection of cells and organs that destroys or neutralizes pathogens that would otherwise cause disease or death. The lymphatic system, for most people, is associated with the immune system to such a degree that the two systems are virtually indistinguishable. The lymphatic system is the system of vessels, cells, and organs that carries excess fluids to the bloodstream and filters pathogens from the blood. The swelling of lymph nodes during an infection and the transport of lymphocytes via the lymphatic vessels are but two examples of the many connections between these critical organ systems. A major function of the lymphatic system is to drain body fluids and return them to the bloodstream.

Structure and function of the lymphatic system

A number of specialised tissues are important for the proper functioning of the immune system. Among these are the lymph nodes , which provide an ideal environment for communication between immune cells. This environment is necessary for proper activation of the T and B cells or lymphocytes that are required for defence against many pathogens. A number of features of lymph nodes help them to perform their functions. The lymph nodes are strategically located at anatomical locations where they are most able to receive immunological signals from around the body.

The lymphatic system consists of all lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs. Hence, rather than representing a single organ, the lymphatic system comprises a circulatory network of vessels and lymphoid tissue and cells in every part of the body. It works together closely with the blood-producing haematopoietic system in the bone marrow, thereby playing a vital role in immune responses to protect the body from various pathogens. Also, the lymphatic vessel network helps transporting nutrients and waste products in the body. The lymphatic system with its vessel network is — apart from the circulatory system, with which it is closely connected — the most important transport system in the human body. The human body produces about two litres of lymph every day.

The immune system includes primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphatic tissues and various cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow, as well as secondary lymphatic tissues including spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, skin, and liver. The thymus is largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods of development. By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is replaced by adipose tissue. Nevertheless, residual T-lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life.

Structure and function of the lymphatic system

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