Shoulder Muscle Activity And Function In Common Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises Pdf

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shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises pdf

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The rotator cuff performs multiple functions during shoulder exercises, including glenohumeral abduction, external rotation ER and internal rotation IR. The rotator cuff also stabilizes the glenohumeral joint and controls humeral head translations.

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During movements of the shoulder, the scapula moves in coordination with the humerus. Closed kinetic chain CKC exercises are exercises where the distal segment is fixed and more proximal segments are free to move. Electromyography EMG allows the measurement of the muscle activity, and EMG studies are frequently used to guide rehabilitation programs designed for musculoskeletal injuries. Scapular muscle ratios during open kinetic chain exercises have been previously studied and identified, 13 but they have not been identified for CKC exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CKC exercises that produce optimal muscle ratios of the scapular stabilizers in healthy shoulders.

Shoulder Muscle Activity and Function in Common Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

After an injury or surgery, an exercise conditioning program will help you return to daily activities and enjoy a more active, healthy lifestyle. Following a well-structured conditioning program will also help you return to sports and other recreational activities. This is a general conditioning program that provides a wide range of exercises.

To ensure that the program is safe and effective for you, it should be performed under your doctor's supervision. Talk to your doctor or physical therapist about which exercises will best help you meet your rehabilitation goals. Strength: Strengthening the muscles that support your shoulder will help keep your shoulder joint stable.

Keeping these muscles strong can relieve shoulder pain and prevent further injury. Flexibility: Stretching the muscles that you strengthen is important for restoring range of motion and preventing injury.

Gently stretching after strengthening exercises can help reduce muscle soreness and keep your muscles long and flexible. Target Muscles: The muscle groups targeted in this conditioning program include:.

Length of program: This shoulder conditioning program should be continued for 4 to 6 weeks, unless otherwise specified by your doctor or physical therapist. After your recovery, these exercises can be continued as a maintenance program for lifelong protection and health of your shoulders. Performing the exercises two to three days a week will maintain strength and range of motion in your shoulders. Stretch: After the warm-up, do the stretching exercises shown on Page 1 before moving on to the strengthening exercises.

When you have completeds the strengthening exercises, repeat the stretching exercises to end the program. Do not ignore pain: You should not feel pain during an exercise.

Talk to your doctor or physical therapist if you have any pain while exercising. Ask questions: If you are not sure how to do an exercise, or how often to do it, contact your doctor or physical therapist.

Main muscles worked: Posterior deltoid You should feel this stretch at the back of your shoulder. Main muscles worked: Subscapularis You should feel this stretch at the front of your shoulder. Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder.

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor You should feel this stretch in your outer upper back, behind your shoulder. Main muscles worked: Middle and lower trapezius You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back. Equipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. If you have access to a fitness center, this exercise can also be performed on a weight machine.

A fitness assistant at your gym can instruct you on how to use the machines safely. Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus and teres minor You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back. Main muscles worked: Pectoralis, subscapularis You should feel this exercise at your chest and shoulder.

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder and upper back. Main muscles worked: Biceps You should feel this exercise at the front of your upper arm. Equipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 3 sets of 8 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions.

As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 3 sets of 8 repetitions. Main muscles worked: Triceps You should feel this exercise at the back of your upper arm. Main muscles worked: Middle and posterior deltoid, supraspinatus, middle trapezius You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back.

Equipment needed: Begin with a light enough weight to allow 3 to 4 sets of 20 repetitions without pain. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, add 2 to 3 pounds of weight, but do fewer repetitions. Progress to 3 sets of 15 repetitions at each weight increment, with the maximum weight approximately 5 to 7 pounds.

Main muscles worked: Middle trapezius, serratus You should feel this exercise in your upper back, at your shoulder blade. Main muscles worked: Middle trapezius, serratus You should feel this exercise in your upper back at your shoulder blade.

Equipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 15 repetitions. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions. Main muscles worked: Middle and lower trapezius, Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back.

Main muscles worked: Internal rotation: anterior deltoid, pectoralis, subscapularis, latissimus. External rotation: posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor You should feel this exercise in the front and back of your shoulder, your chest, and upper back. Equipment needed: Begin with weights that allow 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions approximately 1 to 2 pounds , and progress to 3 sets of 5 repetitions. Main muscles worked: Subscapularis, teres major You should feel this stretch in the front of your shoulder.

AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon, or locate one in your area through the AAOS Find an Orthopaedist program on this website. Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program. Warmup: Stretch: After the warm-up, do the stretching exercises shown on Page 1 before moving on to the strengthening exercises.

Main muscles worked: Deltoids, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis Equipment needed: None Repetitions: 2 sets of 10 Days Per Week: 5 to 6 Step-by-step directions Lean forward and place one hand on a counter or table for support. Let your other arm hang freely at your side. Gently swing your arm forward and back. Repeat the exercise moving your arm side-to-side, and repeat again in a circular motion. Repeat the entire sequence with the other arm.

Tip: Do not round your back or lock your knees. Main muscles worked: Posterior deltoid You should feel this stretch at the back of your shoulder Equipment needed: None Repetitions: 4 each side Days Per Week: 5 to 6 Step-by-step directions Relax your shoulders and gently pull one arm across your chest as far as possible, holding at your upper arm.

Hold the stretch for 30 seconds and then relax for 30 seconds. Repeat with the other arm. Tip: Do not pull or put pressure on your elbow.

Main muscles worked: Subscapularis You should feel this stretch at the front of your shoulder Equipment needed: Light stick, such as a yardstick Repetitions: 4 each side Days Per Week: 5 to 6 Step-by-step directions Hold a stick behind your back with one hand, and lightly grasp the other end of the stick with your other hand. Pull the stick horizontally as shown so that your shoulder is passively stretched to the point of feeling a pull without pain. Hold for 30 seconds and then relax for 30 seconds.

Repeat on the other side. Tip: Do not lean over or twist to side while pulling the stick. Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder Equipment needed: Light stick, such as a yardstick Repetitions: 4 each side Days Per Week: 5 to 6 Step-by-step directions Grasp the stick with one hand and cup the other end of the stick with the other hand.

Keep the elbow of the shoulder you are stretching against the side of your body and push the stick horizontally as shown to the point of feeling a pull without pain. Tip: Keep your hips facing forward and do not twist. Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor You should feel this stretch in your outer upper back, behind your shoulder Equipment needed: None Repetitions: 4 reps, 3x a day Days Per Week: Daily Step-by-step directions Lie on your side on a firm, flat surface with the affected shoulder under you and your arm bent, as shown.

You can place your head on a pillow for comfort, if needed. Use your unaffected arm to push your other arm down. Stop pressing down when you feel a stretch in the back of your affected shoulder. Hold this position for 30 seconds, then relax your arm for 30 seconds. Tip: Do not bend your wrist or press down on your wrist.

Main muscles worked: Middle and lower trapezius You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back Equipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. Repetitions: 3 sets of 8 Days Per Week: 3 Step-by-step directions Make a 3-foot-long loop with the elastic band and tie the ends together. Attach the loop to a doorknob or other stable object.

Stand holding the band with your elbow bent and at your side, as shown in the start position. Keep your arm close to your side and slowly pull your elbow straight back. Slowly return to the start position and repeat.

Tip: Squeeze your shoulder blades together as you pull. Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus and teres minor You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper back Equipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance.

Keeping your shoulder and elbow level, slowly raise your hand until it is in line with your head. Tip: Make sure your elbow stays in line with your shoulder. Main muscles worked: Pectoralis, subscapularis You should feel this exercise at your chest and shoulder Equipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. Keep your elbow close to your side and bring your arm across your body. Tip: Keep your elbow pressed into your side.

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder and upper back Equipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance.

Keeping your elbow close to your side, slowly rotate your arm outward. Tip: Squeeze your shoulder blades together when you pull your elbow back. Main muscles worked: Biceps You should feel this exercise at the front of your upper arm Equipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 3 sets of 8 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. Repetitions: 3 sets of 8 Days Per Week: 3 Step-by-step directions Stand tall with your weight evenly distributed over both feet.

Keep your elbow close to your side and slowly bring the weight up toward your shoulder as shown. Hold for 2 seconds. Slowly return to the starting position and repeat.

Tip: Do not do the exercise too quickly or swing your arm.

Shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises

Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: a review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation.

Rotator cuff

The shoulder is a very complex joint, one of the most complex in the human body. Moreover, it is the most mobile joint, which means that as a result, it must sacrifice some of its stability. It is imperative for the musculature and soft tissue structures surrounding the shoulder to be bulletproofed with strength in order to give that stability the shoulder needs to function at its optimal capacity.

In anatomy , the rotator cuff is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder and allow for its extensive range of motion. Of the seven scapulohumeral muscles , four make up the rotator cuff. The four muscles are the supraspinatus muscle , the infraspinatus muscle , teres minor muscle , and the subscapularis muscle. C5 — C6. The supraspinatus muscle spreads out in a horizontal band to insert on the superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus.

The rotator cuff performs multiple functions during shoulder exercises, including glenohumeral abduction, external rotation ER and internal rotation IR. The rotator cuff also stabilizes the glenohumeral joint and controls humeral head translations. The infraspinatus and subscapularis have significant roles in scapular plane abduction scaption , generating forces that are two to three times greater than supraspinatus force. However, the supraspinatus still remains a more effective shoulder abductor because of its more effective moment arm. During abduction, middle deltoid force has been estimated to be N, followed by N from the anterior deltoid, N from the subscapularis, N from the infraspinatus, and N from the supraspinatus.

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Accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction is common after neck dissection in oral cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of scapular muscle strengthening exercises with motor-control techniques on neck dissection-related shoulder dysfunction in oral cancer survivors before the initiation of radiotherapy. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated into the motor-control and regular-exercise groups.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SHOULDER GIRDLE MUSCLES DURING COMMON INTERNAL ROTATION EXERCISES.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Escamilla and Kyle Yamashiro and L. Paulos and J. Andrews Published Medicine Sports Medicine. The rotator cuff performs multiple functions during shoulder exercises, including glenohumeral abduction, external rotation ER and internal rotation IR.

After an injury or surgery, an exercise conditioning program will help you return to daily activities and enjoy a more active, healthy lifestyle. Following a well-structured conditioning program will also help you return to sports and other recreational activities. This is a general conditioning program that provides a wide range of exercises. To ensure that the program is safe and effective for you, it should be performed under your doctor's supervision.

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