Monitoring Training And Performance In Athletes Pdf
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- Monitoring Training Load to Understand Fatigue in Athletes
- Monitoring Training and Performance in Athletes Book Review
- The Current State of Subjective Training Load Monitoring—a Practical Perspective and Call to Action
Over the past decade, there has been an increasing amount of attention placed on how coaches and support staff can best monitor the training process. The goal of this process is twofold: first, it enables us to get a fairly decent idea as to how fatigued the athlete is at any given point in time; and second, it gives us an idea as to how well the athlete is adapting to the given training load.
Monitoring Training Load to Understand Fatigue in Athletes
Monitoring neuromuscular fatigue in high performance athletes. I certify that this thesis does not, to the best of my knowledge and belief: i Incorporate without acknowledgement any material previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any institution of higher education; ii Contain any material previously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the text; or iii Contain any defamatory material.
I also grant permission for the Library at Edith Cowan University to make duplicate copies of my thesis as required. The results from Chapter 4 indicate using the mean value of at least six jumps enhances the ability to detect small but practically important changes in performance from week to week.
Chapter 5 explored the theory that the time of day effect observed in Chapter 4 can be explained by internal temperature differences. This theory was supported by demonstrating that an extended warm-up period can negate differences in jump performance in the morning and the afternoon. Researchers who are unable to standardise the time of day that assessment occurs are able, therefore, to control for performance differences by manipulating the warm-up protocols. The third study examined changes in vertical jump performance over a three month training period and produced several novel outcomes.
A major finding was that unloaded jumps were more sensitive to neuromuscular fatigue during intensive training than loaded jumps Chapter 6.
Furthermore, this set of results showed that all subjects changed their jump technique via a reduction in the amplitude of the countermovement when they were highly fatigued. Using the same data, an analysis was performed to quantify individual differences in within-subject variation Chapter 7 during normal and intensive training. These results provided the first iii indication that within-subject variability in vertical jump performance is substantially different between individuals and between different training phases, an important consideration for interpreting the practical importance of performance changes.
In Chapter 8 the relationship between vertical jump performance and electrically elicited force of the knee extensors was examined to better understand the mechanism s of changes in jump performance associated with neuromuscular fatigue during intensive overload training.
The results showed that the fatigue assessed by vertical jump performance was likely not only peripheral in origin as previously suggested by other authors. Further research is required to further understand the mechanisms of reduced performance during overload training, although the preliminary evidence presented implicates central mechanisms.
To conclude the thesis, the findings presented in the experimental chapters are summarised, with a series of practical recommendations for using vertical jumps to monitor athletic fatigue presented.
First and foremost, I would like to thank my principal supervisor, Professor John Cronin, whose patience and kindness, as well as his practical and academic experience, has been invaluable to me. The commitment that you offer your students is outstanding and I hope thatwe can continue to work together from across the Tasman well into the future. I also offer my Dale, the advice, guidance and support you provided in the latter stages of this process was beyond all expectation.
Your capacity to reply to emails and provide valuable feedback on draft versions in record time is remarkable. I sincerely thank you. I also appreciate the generous input from a number of co-authors. I was lucky enough to steal some time from Dr Nicholas Gill, whose blend of practical and theoretical knowledge was instrumental in helping to shape the studies that make up this thesis.
Nick, your good humour and willingness to share was greatly appreciated. A sincere thanks also goes to Professor Will Hopkins, whose expert advice has taught me so much about understanding and interpreting research outcomes in the context of elite sports performance. This knowledge will certainly influence my future endeavours in sport science research and practice. I would also like to thank Dr Stuart Cormack for his support and enthusiastic regard for the work undertaken during my candidature.
Along with this amplification in training load comes an increase in the need to closely monitor the associated fatigue responses, since maximising the adaptive response to training is also reliant on avoiding the negative consequences of excessive fatigue.
Athlete fatigue however, is a difficult concept to define, making its measurement equally problematic. In much of the scientific literature the definition of 'fatigue' is limited to a reduction in force producing capabilities of an isolated muscle group, often measured in an isometric condition.
There are various commonly accepted methods for understanding short-term fatigue within the elite sporting environment. However there is some debate as to how to best quantify longer lasting neuromuscular fatigue within this elite sporting context. Laboratory methods for the assessment of neuromuscular fatigue are relatively standardised however, they are also invasive, time consuming and costly.
This differs to the methods used in applied sport science research and the day to day training environment of high performance sports, where tests of performance employing complex multi-joint movements, such as vertical jumping, are preferred and may provide insight into neuromuscular fatigue. This method is more convenient, has greater ecological validity and is easier to implement, allowing for regular assessment of large groups of athletes. While vertical jumps provide many advantages, there are a number of important methodological considerations still to be addressed when using changes in performance to influence training prescription.
For example, practitioners require information regarding the magnitude of changes in jump outcomes that affect training and competition performance, and an indication of which kinetic and kinematic variables are most useful for monitoring these changes. Another limitation in using tests of this nature as a measure of neuromuscular fatigue is that it is not possible to elucidate any information regarding the aetiology of 3 reductions in performance.
More information about the relationship between changes in these parameters and what is happening at the muscular level is needed. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate a variety of practical methods for monitoring fatigue in athletes in order to effectively ascertain readiness for continued training and evaluating training responses in the regular training environment of the high performing athlete.
Along with establishing the relationship between laboratory and practical measures of neuromuscular fatigue, this series of studies investigates a range of methods for monitoring changes in neuromuscular fatigue during periods of high training stress, providing recommendations about the best analytical model for confidently detecting changes that are practically important for athletes on an individual basis. This body of work builds on previous research [60,62,65,66] by expanding the analysis to include a more comprehensive set of dependent variables and using innovative statistical approaches to quantify and interpret changes in performance.
It also includes comparative analyses of practical field-based measures of performance with previously established clinical measures of neuromuscular fatigue, which has not been comprehensively documented previously. Along with information gathered from the scientific literature, the rationale for the experimental chapters in this thesis was developed by surveying participants involved in coaching or sport science support roles in a variety of high performance sports programs to devise a list of current best practice methods for monitoring athlete fatigue and recovery Chapter 3 , ensuring that the research outcomes are relevant to the high performance sports environment.
The findings from the research studies undertaken during the doctoral studies have the potential to provide coaches of high performance athletes with an objective measurement tool for monitoring the neuromuscular and fatigue responses to varied training and competition loads.
Describe the current methods employed in monitoring fatigue in high performance training environments Chapter 3. Understand the thresholds currently used for determining practically important changes in functional performance capacity Chapter 3. Establish the normal variation associated with kinetic and kinematic variables measured during non-consecutive vertical jumps via a linear position transducer Chapter 4.
Examine how this variation can be reduced such that small but practical changes in performance are discernible Chapters 4 and 5. Investigate if alterations in body temperature via an active warm-up reduce performance differences due to diurnal variation, ensuring that valid maximal performance results can be obtained independent of the time of day that assessment occurs Chapter 5.
Examine differences in sensitivity of kinetic and kinematic variables to high levels of neuromuscular fatigue Chapter 6. Provide recommendations for the measurement and analysis of changes in performance capacity when athletes are exposed to a variety of training stimuli Chapters 7 and 9.
Finally, current systems for monitoring fatigue are reviewed, with methodological considerations for each method evaluated in reference to the regular use for monitoring in the high performance training environment.
It is a concept that is ingrained in the philosophy of almost all sports coaches and sports scientists responsible for the planning and management of training programs for elite athletes. The concept holds that whenever an athlete is subjected to an overloading training stimulus that causes fatigue strain , the body will re-organise its capacities such that the next exposure to the same stimulus will produce less strain, given that sufficient recovery has occurred between exposures. In this process the length of time required for recovery or regeneration depends primarily upon the magnitude of the initial overload and the subsequent displacement in homeostasis.
In order to achieve supercompensation in performance, traditional training theory advises that each new training stimulus should not begin until the perturbations from the previous training bout has been fully restored or over-restored [34,,,]. There is however a limit to how much athletes can improve using this approach. More recent theories and recommendations advocate that physical loads should be systematically repeated without allowing for full restoration of homeostasis .
This leads to an accumulation of the immediate training effects whereby the additional fatigue-after effects superimpose existing ones, intensifying inadequate adaptation . This process of inducing a "valley of fatigue", where stress accumulates over periods of days or weeks, requires careful planning of the training program. Continual monitoring of individual responses to the load becomes even more important, since there is a critical point or threshold for each athlete where their reserve capacities cannot cope with the accumulated fatigue .
If this threshold is surpassed, maladaptation to training can occur, resulting in continual performance decrements and a state of overtraining Figure 2. The remainder of this review will explore current methods available for monitoring fatigue and responses to training stressors with the aim of maximising performance and minimising the risk over overtraining.
In the scientific literature, fatigue is used in a variety of contexts. Abiss and Laursen  suggested that the definition of fatigue in scientific investigations has typically been manipulated to answer diverse research questions in different sports science disciplines, resulting in multiple interpretations of the term.
This review will be mostly limited to physiological fatigue responses to exercise, however even within this realm, differences are still apparent in the way that fatigue is described and subsequently investigated. Throughout the remainder of this treatise fatigue is discussed in the context of a reduction in overall performance capacity; however, there are still a number of perspectives from which this reduction should be considered .
Task failure and acute muscle fatiguePhysiological fatigue is often defined as the failure to maintain a required or expected force output , or the inability to continue working at a given intensity . The mechanisms responsible for fatigue have been extensively reviewed [7,85,91,], however theaetiologies have yet to be clearly established since multiple factors such as fibre type composition of the contracting muscle s , the intensity, type, and duration of contractile activity, and the individual degree of fitness all influence the manifestation of fatigue in varying situations .
Task failure specifically denotes fatigue that develops during sustained activity and results in the inability to continue working at a given intensity. Enoka  outlined nine processes within the neuromuscular system that can be impaired during exercise, leading to a reduction in force production capabilities. These include; 1 activation of the primary motor cortex, 2 central nervous system drive to the motor neurons, 3 the muscles or motor units that are activated, 4 neuromuscular propagation, 5 excitation-contraction coupling, 6 the availability of metabolic substrates, 7 the intracellular milieu, 8 the contractile apparatus, and 9 muscle blood flow Figure 2.
Figure 2. The functional importance of central processes in the manifestation of fatigue have been dismissed by many authors, with modern reviews of muscle physiology proceeding on the premise that the reduction in force production by volition occurs within the muscle itself [7,91,].
These authors argue that the influence of central mechanisms on fatigue is minimal and can therefore be ignored. Other experts disagree arguing that efferent neural commands produce change in the output of motor cortical cells, the spinal interneuronal input to motorneurones and the discharge frequencies of motorneurones [,,].
The popular central governor theory [,,] contends that the reduction in efferent neural commands are a response to afferent feedback that enables the athlete to subconsciously 'anticipate' the demands of the exercise task, and select the best pacing strategy to accomplish it most effectively. More specifically, sensory information from the periphery is integrated by the brain to determine appropriate exercise behaviours that ensure bodily homeostasis .
This theory is dismissed by Marcora who advocates that exercise performance is not influenced by afferent feedback [,]. Whilst much of the literature makes a distinction between peripheral and central fatigue, most authors agree that both pathways are likely integrated . The occurrence of central fatigue is predominantly indicated by an increase in the increment in force evoked by electrical or magnetic stimulation of the motor nerve or musculature during a maximal voluntary effort.
While excitation provided by supraspinal centres is generally not impaired during brief high-force contractions, it can be during prolonged maximal and submaximal contractions [84,]. During such prolonged contractions the progressive decline in force is generally accompanied by a progressive increase in the absolute force increment obtained by electrical or magnetic stimulation e. In a sports performance context, reductions in central activation have been observed during and after numerous forms of exercise, including squash match-play , tennis match-play , prolonged cycling , downhill running , and marathon  and ultramarathon running .
The underlying causes of central fatigue mechanisms are complex and still not fully understood, however Taylor and Gandevia  presented three actions involving the motoneuron pool that might lead to motoneuron slowing.
These include a decrease in excitatory input, an increase in inhibitory input e. It is further suggested that all three actions are likely to occur during prolonged fatiguing activities. The division of centrally and peripherally mediated fatigue responses is generally drawn at the level of the neuromuscular junction.
Monitoring Training and Performance in Athletes Book Review
Metrics details. This commentary delivers a practical perspective on the current state of subjective training load TL monitoring, and in particular sessional ratings of perceived exertion, for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Subjective measures may be able to reflect mental fatigue, effort, stress, and motivation. These factors appear to be important moderators of the relationship TL has with performance and injury, and they also seem to differ between open and closed skill sports. As such, mental factors may affect the interaction between TL, performance, and injury in different sports.
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The Current State of Subjective Training Load Monitoring—a Practical Perspective and Call to Action
Several internal and external factors have been identified to estimate and control the psycho-biological stress of training in order to optimize training responses and to avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable health effects of an athlete. An increasing number of lightweight sensor-based Non-invasive sensor-based wearable technologies could transmit physical, physiological and biological data to computing platform and may provide through human-machine interaction smart watch, smartphone, tablet bio-feedback of various parameters for training load management and health.
Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. The web addresses cited in this text were current as of September , unless otherwise noted. Acquisitions Editor: Roger W.
Monitoring Training and Performance in Athletes provides practitioners with the information needed in order to oversee an athlete monitoring system and to collect, analyze, and interpret monitoring data so that training programs can be adjusted to achieve optimal athlete preparation and performance. He is one of the world's leading scientific researchers on athlete monitoring and is highly regarded internationally for his work on resistance training and strength and power development. He also has vast experience as an athlete monitoring consultant for elite athletes and coaches, working with high-profile New Zealand sport teams such as the All Blacks and the Silver Ferns. Monitoring Training and Performance in Athletes. McGuigan, Mike.
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