Kidney Anatomy And Physiology Pdf
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The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs. They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit larger than the female kidney.
The kidneys are located at the rear wall of the abdominal cavity and they are protected by the ribcage.
Principles of Renal Physiology
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart. Nephrons are the most important part of each kidney. They take in blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood. Each kidney has about 1 million nephrons. Each has its own internal set of structures.
After blood enters a nephron, it goes into the renal corpuscle, also called a Malpighian body. The renal corpuscle contains two additional structures:. The renal tubules are a series of tubes that begin after the Bowman capsule and end at collecting ducts.
The renal cortex is the outer part of the kidney. It contains the glomerulus and convoluted tubules. The renal cortex is surrounded on its outer edges by the renal capsule, a layer of fatty tissue. Together, the renal cortex and capsule house and protect the inner structures of the kidney. The renal medulla is the smooth, inner tissue of the kidney. It contains the loop of Henle as well as renal pyramids. Renal pyramids are small structures that contain strings of nephrons and tubules.
These tubules transport fluid into the kidney. This fluid then moves away from the nephrons toward the inner structures that collect and transport urine out of the kidney.
This is where filtered fluids exit the nephrons. The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped space in the innermost part of the kidney.
It functions as a pathway for fluid on its way to the bladder. The first part of the renal pelvis contains the calyces. These are small cup-shaped spaces that collect fluid before it moves into the bladder. This is also where extra fluid and waste become urine. The hilum is a small opening located on the inner edge of the kidney, where it curves inward to create its distinct beanlike shape.
The renal pelvis passes through it, as well as the:. The ureter is a tube of muscle that pushes urine into the bladder, where it collects and exits the body. Because of all of the vital functions the kidneys perform and the toxins they encounter, the kidneys are susceptible to various problems. Learn more about some of the most common kidney diseases.
If you notice any of these symptoms, contact your doctor. Depending on your symptoms, they may do some kidney function tests to make a diagnosis. The kidneys are important organs that affect many other body parts, including the heart. Follow these tips to keep them working efficiently:. Eating a lot of salty foods can disrupt the balance of minerals in the blood. This can make it harder for the kidneys to work properly. Try swapping out processed foods — which usually have a lot of added salt — for whole foods, such as:.
High blood pressure is a known risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Regular exercise, even for just 20 minutes a day, can help reduce blood pressure. Drinking plenty of water helps the kidneys perform one of their most important functions: removing toxins.
Learn more about how much water you should really be drinking every day. Regularly taking certain over-the-counter medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , can cause kidney damage over time. Occasionally taking them is fine, but work with your doctor to find alternatives if you have a condition that requires managing pain, such as arthritis. Several things can increase your risk of developing a kidney condition.
Make sure you regularly have your kidney function tested if you:. There are two blood vessels leading off from the abdominal aorta that go to the kidneys. The renal artery is one of these two blood vessels. The renal…. There are two renal veins, a left and a right. They branch off the inferior vena cava and drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys. As they enter…. Renal pyramids are kidney tissues that are shaped like cones. Another term for renal pyramids is malpighian pyramids.
Combined with the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system helps to fight off disease, helps the body maintain a normal body temperature, and…. Humans are sexual, meaning that both a male and a female are needed to reproduce. Each is equipped with specific organs capable of producing specific…. The supraspinatus muscle is a rotator cuff muscle located in the shoulder, specifically in the supraspinatus fossa, a concave depression in the rear…. The corpus spongiosum is yet another part of the male anatomy that facilitates sexual reproduction.
It is a soft, spongy tissue that surrounds the…. The fimbriae of the uterine tube, also known as fimbriae tubae, are small, fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tubes, through which…. There are many blood vessels within the male pelvic region. Many are there to supply the lower half of the body but many supply the male reproductive…. The spermatic cord is actually a bundle of fibers and tissues that form a cord-like structure that runs through the abdominal region down to the….
Kidney Overview. Medically reviewed by Carissa Stephens, R. The kidneys perform many crucial functions, including: maintaining overall fluid balance regulating and filtering minerals from blood filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure. Renal corpuscle After blood enters a nephron, it goes into the renal corpuscle, also called a Malpighian body.
The renal corpuscle contains two additional structures: The glomerulus. This is a cluster of capillaries that absorb protein from blood traveling through the renal corpuscle. The Bowman capsule. The remaining fluid, called capsular urine, passes through the Bowman capsule into the renal tubules. Renal tubules The renal tubules are a series of tubes that begin after the Bowman capsule and end at collecting ducts.
Each tubule has several parts: Proximal convoluted tubule. This section absorbs water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood. Loop of Henle. This section further absorbs potassium, chloride, and sodium into the blood. Distal convoluted tubule. This section absorbs more sodium into the blood and takes in potassium and acid. Renal cortex. Renal medulla. Renal pyramids Renal pyramids are small structures that contain strings of nephrons and tubules.
Once in the collecting duct, the fluid moves on to its final stops in the renal pelvis. Renal pelvis. It functions as a pathway for fluid on its way to the bladder Calyces The first part of the renal pelvis contains the calyces. Hilum The hilum is a small opening located on the inner edge of the kidney, where it curves inward to create its distinct beanlike shape.
The renal pelvis passes through it, as well as the: Renal artery. This brings oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidney for filtration. Renal vein. This carries filtered blood from the kidneys back to the heart. Ureter The ureter is a tube of muscle that pushes urine into the bladder, where it collects and exits the body. Kidney diagram. Use this interactive 3-D diagram to explore the kidney. Kidney conditions. Some of these conditions include: chronic kidney disease kidney failure kidney stones glomerulonephritis acute nephritis polycystic kidney disease urinary tract infections caliectasis acidosis uremia hydronephrosis pyelonephritis kidney cysts nephrotic syndrome azotemia Learn more about some of the most common kidney diseases.
Symptoms of a kidney problem. Kidney conditions can cause a range of symptoms. Some common ones include: trouble sleeping fatigue inability to concentrate dry, itchy skin increased or decreased urination blood in urine foamy urine puffiness around the eyes foot or ankle swelling reduced appetite muscle cramps If you notice any of these symptoms, contact your doctor.
Tips for healthy kidneys. Follow these tips to keep them working efficiently: Avoid extra salt Eating a lot of salty foods can disrupt the balance of minerals in the blood.
The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs. They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit larger than the female kidney. The kidneys are well vascularized, receiving about 25 percent of the cardiac output at rest. There have never been sufficient kidney donations to provide a kidney to each person needing one. In this video, Dr. The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae, whereas the right is lower due to slight displacement by the liver.
PDF | In this chapter we explain: The basic anatomy and physiology of the kidney How kidney function changes through life | Find, read and cite.
Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
Renal system , in humans , organ system that includes the kidneys , where urine is produced, and the ureters , bladder , and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. In many respects the human excretory, or urinary, system resembles those of other mammalian species, but it has its own unique structural and functional characteristics. The terms excretory and urinary emphasize the elimination function of the system. The kidneys, however, both secrete and actively retain within the body certain substances that are as critical to survival as those that are eliminated.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The paired kidneys are bean-shaped retroperitoneal organs, each about cm long and located on the posterior abdominal wall. The renal artery, the renal vein, and the renal pelvis pass through the renal hilus; the renal nerves and lymphatic vessels are associated with the renal blood vessels Figure The cut surface of the kidney has a pale outer region, the cortex, and a darker inner region, the medulla.
Renal Physiology helps you to quickly and easily grasp the fundamentals of renal physiology and learn how to apply them in a clinical context. Attractively illustrated with clear 2-color diagrams, it also facilitates study with learning objectives , "In the Clinic" and "At the Molecular Level" boxes, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with review questions and explained answers. Online access at www. This book is well referenced with up to date evidence supporting all statements and will make a great addition to any physiotherapist's library.
Their main function is to filter and excrete waste products from the blood. They are also responsible for water and electrolyte balance in the body. Urine is transported from the kidneys to the bladder by the ureters.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.
A good knowledge of renal physiology is essential to the understanding of many disease states. The purpose of the book is to set out the principles of renal physiology and normal renal function. Now in its 30 th year of continuous publication, this new edition offers a logical progression through renal physiology and pathophysiology. In addition, the anatomy, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the kidney are covered — making it highly suitable for system based courses. This 5 th edition has been extensively revised and features a wealth of new and widely accepted information about kidney function.
– Regulation of kidney ensures that this does not happen. Page 2. Bioengineering CV Physiology. Kidney. Nephron Structure.
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