Monsoon Rainfall Weather And Climate In India Pdf
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- Contribution of Monthly and Regional Rainfall to the Strength of Indian Summer Monsoon
- Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification
- Indian monsoon
- Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification
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The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. The nation has four seasons: winter January and February , summer March to May , a monsoon rainy season June to September , and a post-monsoon period October to December. India's unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate, particularly in the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest.
Contribution of Monthly and Regional Rainfall to the Strength of Indian Summer Monsoon
The factors which influence the Indian climate. It is a temporary replacement of cold current and the frequency will vary from 2 to 5 years. Usha Choudhary Oct 29, Arpit Kumar Jain Oct 30, Subia Twinkle Nov 18, Ashutosh Rajawat Nov 26, Lipika Swain Dec 27, Divya Kumar May 4, Gayatri Barik Jun 23, Arjun Gour Jul 5, Shreya Singh Jul 6, Simran Iraqui Sep 9, Arpit Kumar Jain Read in Hindi.
Share via. Weather is defined as characteristics of the atmosphere at a particular point of time. The climate and weather have the same components of measure, the observation period differs for both the terms and the climate reflects the general characteristics of the atmosphere of a particular region or area. The characteristics of atmospheric conditions along with their components reflect the different seasons of a year of a region.
The factors which influence the Indian climate Latitude — latitude determines the amount of sun rays that a surface receives. The air temperature decrease from the equator to poles. As the tropic of cancer cuts India almost equally half, India experiences both Tropical and Sub-Tropical climate. Altitude — the temperature decreases from the surface to higher altitudes as the density of air decreases.
As India has a diversity of landscapes from coastal areas to huge mountains led to different climate patterns in different areas of the country. The huge mountains also influence the weather pattern by acting as a wind barrier. Pressure and Wind system — the distribution of temperature and rainfall depends on the pressure and wind system of an area. The major pressure and wind components are — Pressure and surface winds, Upper air circulation and the cyclones.
Distance from the sea — Sea influences the climate in the coastal areas, thus coastal areas has moderating climate and the interior lands have an extreme climate. Relief — the physical features has great influence on climate with the parameters of temperature, air pressure, wind direction and speed and finally the rainfall distribution. Weather Mechanism Winter Season Cold dry winds from the north of Himalayas, especially from central and western Asia comes into contact with the trade winds at the surface over the north and north-western regions of the country.
Jet Streams blows over the upper troposphere have great influence on the weather pattern in India. In winter the Jet Streams travels south of the Himalayas over the Ganga plain and other branch blows north of Tibetan plateau. Jet Streams — it is the high altitude westward wind in the troposphere. It has the characteristics of flowing in a meandering path at high speed.
The westerly Jet Stream brought in the western cyclonic disturbance , which originates in the Mediterranean Sea to the north-western part of India. It is characterised with increased night temperatures and brings winter rainfall which aids the cultivation of Rabi crops. The Inter-tropical Convergence Zone ITCZ — which is the low-pressure trough in which the north-east and south-east trade winds converge. It shifts northwards with the apparent movement of the sun and lies south of Himalayas and parallel to it.
Eg: Equatorial climate, Siberian, etc. Monsoon type of climate is well described as the seasonal reversal of winds in a year. In summer the winds travel from sea to land and in winter the phenomenon is reversed i. The monsoon is experienced all over the country but the regional variation is experienced in terms of Rainfall, wind pattern, temperature, the degree of wetness and dryness.
The monsoon pattern is partially understood when it is studied globally. The causes and distribution rainfall in South Asia makes it less complex to understand monsoon. In summer the country experiences south-west monsoon and in winter it is the north-east monsoon. The various factors which are responsible for the formation and pattern of Indian Monsoon are: Differential heating and cooling of land and water — in summer the land gets heated up faster than the sea, thus creates an intense low pressure in the continental area and the winds from high-pressure seas blows towards the land.
It is vice-versa in the winter season. During summer it shifts northwards and places at Ganga plains, thus creating an intense low pressure called Monsoon trough — this region is characterised with high rainfall.
Intense heating of Tibetan plateau during summer creates strong vertical air currents and low pressure. The presence of jet streams: Westerly Jet Streams to the north of Himalayas and Easterly Jet in the peninsular plateau.
The high-pressure area in the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar has great impact over Indian monsoon. Onset of the Monsoon Due to differential heating of land and water, at the start of summer, the low-pressure area is created in the sub-continent, especially in the north-western part of the country. The south-east trade winds get attracted to this low-pressure centre and also due to the presence of ITCZ it crosses the equator and deflects towards the Indian Sub-continent between 40 to 60 degree east and enters India as South-west Monsoon winds.
By 1 st June the south-west monsoon sets in over Kerala and progresses further towards the inland. Monsoon Burst — at the time of arrival of monsoon the rainfall increases suddenly and persists for few days after the pre-monsoon showers is called Burst in the Monsoon. The monsoon burst is caused due to Easterly Jet Streams. The Arabian Sea branch goes through the west coast and reaches Mumbai, while the Bay of Bengal branch reached Assam carrying moisture from the sea.
The Arabian Sea branch further splits into three branches: The first branch hits the western coast perpendicularly along the states of Kerala and Karnataka. The second branch enters the Mumbai coast and travels through the mainland crossing Chotanagpur Plateau before entering into the Ganga Plains. The third branch enters the kachchh peninsula and passes through Aravali range parallelly thus providing Scanty Rainfall The Bay of Bengal branch after entering into India from the south and south-east direction deflected from the east splits into two branches due to the presence of Himalayas.
One branch enters the Punjab Plains after crossing through the plains and another branch enters the Brahmaputra plains and provides a significant amount of rainfall in the north-east region. Western coast receives through Orographic rainfall as the moist bearing winds raise in the Western Ghats and provide plenty of rainfall in short duration of time. Thus the eastern coast remains dry during summer. This branch after hitting the north-east provides Orographic rainfall and deflects towards the western part the country along the Ganga plains due to the position of the Himalayas which obstructs the northward movement of the winds.
The rainfall gets decreases from east to west in the eastern side and from west to east in the west coast of the country. Break in the Monsoon — in the period of the south-west monsoon, there will be a break in the rainfall for a few days or weeks.
The main reason for this break is the fluctuation of Monsoon trough and ITCZ in the northern part and reduces the frequency of moisture-laden winds in the mainland. Also due to parallel path of winds in the west coast curbs the rainfall in that region for few weeks.
Retreating Monsoon By the month of September, the sun sets to move towards the southern latitudes. Thus the low-pressure centre along the Ganga plains becomes weak and gradually replaced by high pressure.
The monsoon retreats from the western part of the country thus gradually by the month of December the low-pressure centre is completely removed from the land area and north of the bay of Bengal experiences the low pressure.
October Heat — when the south-west monsoon retreats the land area is characterised with high temperature and humidity with clear sky thus the weather becomes oppressive and this condition is called as October Heat. The south-east coast of the country and the interior Tamil Nadu gets heavy rainfall in October and November both from North-East monsoon and the tropical cyclones which passes through the eastern coast.
The reversal of this condition i. This phenomenon can be categorised into two: Positive Indian Ocean Dipole — in this the high pressure lies in the eastern Indian Ocean and the low-pressure area in the western Indian Ocean, thus the winds move from Sumatra region to Madagascar. This aids the monsoon winds by giving the additional push to enter into Northern Hemisphere which results in surplus rainfall in the Indian Sub-continent.
Negative Indian Ocean Dipole — the winds from high-pressure Madagascar area Western Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere flows towards the Eastern Indian Ocean west of Australia thus obstructs the Monsoon winds South-east trade winds which reduces the intensity of winds entering the North Indian Ocean and subsequently poor monsoon in the Indian Sub-Continent.
It was developed by him in the year In this classification, he related vegetation and climate by demarcating the regions based on the distribution of vegetation. Average temperature and Precipitation is taken for making the relationship with the distribution of rainfall and the derived values are used for climate classification.
For designation of groups and types of climate, he used capital and small alphabets. The climatic groups are sub-divided into climatic types based on temperature and precipitation characteristics of a region and its seasonality. The climatic groups are indicated by the letters A, C, D, E for humid climates and B for dry climates. Share this article. Member since Jun Pls hindi me bhi notes diya kre. Arpit Kumar Jain Oct 30, Report. Usha Choudhary All noters are available in english as well as in hindi also.
Subia Twinkle Nov 18, Report. Thanks sir. Ashutosh Rajawat Nov 26, Report. In whole article nowhere it is mentioned whether el Nino brings more rain or less rain. Lipika Swain Dec 27, Report. Thanks a lot.
Divya Kumar May 4, Report. Thanks lot. Gayatri Barik Jun 23, Report. This climate chapter is very difficult. The note provides make it simpler There were points I could not understand but by following books For making it easier..
Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification
The factors which influence the Indian climate. It is a temporary replacement of cold current and the frequency will vary from 2 to 5 years. Usha Choudhary Oct 29, Arpit Kumar Jain Oct 30, Subia Twinkle Nov 18,
Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure, winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability.
It blows from the northeast during cooler months and reverses direction to blow from the southwest during the warmest months of the year. This process brings large amounts of rainfall to the region during June and July. They soon retreat northward, and drastic changes take place in the upper-air circulation see climate: Jet streams. This is a time of transition between the end of one monsoon and the beginning of the next. Late in March the high-sun season reaches the Equator and moves farther north.
The prediction of seasonal mean Indian summer monsoon rainfall ISMR is very important for socioeconomic and water resource planning of the country of India. Also, projection of ISMR under different climate change scenarios is crucial for the planning of adaptation and mitigation strategies of the country. Unfortunately, today we have very little confidence in either the seasonal prediction of ISMR or its projections under climate change scenarios. Although the foundation for the predictability of the tropical climate has been laid Charney and Shukla ; Shukla , the skill in predicting the seasonal mean monsoon rainfall by almost all the global climate models remains limited Kang et al. Hence, a significant improvement in the simulation of the monsoon rainfall climatology in climate models is crucial for making any further progress toward seasonal prediction of ISMR or toward a reliable projection of it under the climate change scenarios.
Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification
The Indian economy, to a major extent, depends upon the all-India summer monsoon rainfall. Because of differential heating of the Indian subcontinent and the adjoining water bodies during summer, moisture is drawn from the ocean to produce a monsoon that begins in June and ends by September, with intense rainfall during July and August. Even though the all-India monsoon rainfall does not vary hugely from year to year, it has large monthly and regional variations. Dash et al.
The climate of India comprises of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalizations difficult. Climate in South India is generally hotter and extremely humid than that of North India. South India is more humid due to nearby coasts.
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