Different Parts Of Computer And Their Functions Pdf
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Hardware refers to the physical, tangible computer equipment and devices, which provide support for major functions such as input, processing internal storage, computation and control , output, secondary storage for data and programs , and communication. A computer system is a set of integrated devices that input, output, process, and store data and information.
Want to know what hardware is in your computer? Become a computer pro with our quick guide to these essential components and their roles. Quite simply, computer hardware is the physical components that a computer system requires to function. It encompasses everything with a circuit board that operates within a PC or laptop; including the motherboard, graphics card, CPU Central Processing Unit , ventilation fans, webcam, power supply, and so on.
Components of Computer System
The basic parts of a desktop computer are the computer case , monitor , keyboard , mouse , and power cord. Each part plays an important role whenever you use a computer. Looking for the old version of this video? You can still view it here. The computer case is the metal and plastic box that contains the main components of the computer, including the motherboard, central processing unit CPU , and power supply. Computer cases come in different shapes and sizes.
A desktop case lies flat on a desk, and the monitor usually sits on top of it. A tower case is tall and sits next to the monitor or on the floor. All-in-one computers come with the internal components built into the monitor, which eliminates the need for a separate case. The monitor works with a video card , located inside the computer case, to display images and text on the screen. Most monitors have control buttons that allow you to change your monitor's display settings, and some monitors also have built-in speakers.
These can be made very thin, and they are often called flat-panel displays. Older monitors use CRT cathode ray tube displays. CRT monitors are much larger and heavier, and they take up more desk space. The keyboard is one of the main ways to communicate with a computer. There are many different types of keyboards, but most are very similar and allow you to accomplish the same basic tasks. Click the buttons in the interactive below to learn about the different parts of the keyboard.
The Print Screen key takes a picture of your screen called a screenshot that you can edit or save using a graphics program. The Escape Esc key allows you to stop a function or action. For example, if a webpage is taking a long time to load, you can press the Escape key to stop loading it. The function keys are labeled F1 through F Some programs use these keys as shortcuts for common tasks. For example, in many programs, F1 opens the Help file. The Tab key is used to create indents in word processing programs.
Also, if you are filling out a form online, you can use the Tab key to switch to the next field. The main part of the keyboard includes the alphanumeric keys letters and numbers and the spacebar. The Control Ctrl , Alternate Alt , and Shift keys are designed to work in combination with other keys. Typically, you hold down Ctrl, Alt, or Shift and then type another key to perform a specific task. The arrow keys are used for many different purposes, including moving the cursor, scrolling a document, and controlling a game.
The numeric keypad resembles a calculator keypad. Many users find that it is easier to type numbers using this keypad. On some keyboards, these keys double as arrow keys. The Enter key executes commands. For example, while on the Internet, you can type a website address and then press Enter to go to the site.
It is also used to start a new line in word processing programs. Insert : This switches between insert mode which inserts new text without deleting anything and overtype mode which deletes text after the cursor as you type. Delete : This erases the character to the right of the cursor.
If you want to learn how to type or improve your touch-typing skills, check out our free Typing Tutorial. There are two main mouse types: optical and mechanical. The optical mouse uses an electronic eye to detect movement and is easier to clean. The mechanical mouse uses a rolling ball to detect movement and requires regular cleaning to work properly. To learn the basics of using a mouse, check out our interactive Mouse Tutorial.
There are other devices that can do the same thing as a mouse. Many people find them easier to use, and they also require less desk space than a traditional mouse.
The most common mouse alternatives are below. Escape Key The Escape Esc key allows you to stop a function or action. Function Keys The function keys are labeled F1 through F Tab Key The Tab key is used to create indents in word processing programs. Alphanumeric Keys The main part of the keyboard includes the alphanumeric keys letters and numbers and the spacebar. Arrow Keys The arrow keys are used for many different purposes, including moving the cursor, scrolling a document, and controlling a game.
Numeric Keypad The numeric keypad resembles a calculator keypad. Backspace Key The Backspace key erases the character to the left of the cursor. Enter The Enter key executes commands. Home and End These move the cursor to the beginning or end of the current line. Insert and Delete Insert : This switches between insert mode which inserts new text without deleting anything and overtype mode which deletes text after the cursor as you type.
Page Up and Page Down These scroll a document or webpage up or down. The mouse is another important tool for communicating with computers. Commonly known as a pointing device , it lets you point to objects on the screen, click on them, and move them. Next: Buttons and Ports on a Computer.
Basic Computer Hardware Notes in PDF
The basic parts of a desktop computer are the computer case , monitor , keyboard , mouse , and power cord. Each part plays an important role whenever you use a computer. Looking for the old version of this video? You can still view it here. The computer case is the metal and plastic box that contains the main components of the computer, including the motherboard, central processing unit CPU , and power supply. Computer cases come in different shapes and sizes. A desktop case lies flat on a desk, and the monitor usually sits on top of it.
Each of these parts are made up of smaller parts, called components. For example, a motherboard includes electrical connectors, a printed circuit board PCB , capacitors, resistors, and transformers. All these components work together to make the motherboard function with the other parts of the computer. The CPU includes components such as integrated circuits , switches, and extremely small transistors. These components process information and perform calculations.
Computer Awareness is tested in almost every exam. One of the oft seen topics in Computers is Hardware. Basic Computer Hardware questions are easy to remember and can count for easy marks. Download as PDF for revision later. Every part of your computer is the result of years of research and development.
All PCs have a Key board port connected directly to the motherboard. The oldest, but still quite common type, is a special DIN, and most PCs until recently retained this style connector. You can find USB versions of many different devices, such as mice, keyboards, scanners, cameras, and even printers. USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular on PCs.
A computer is any machine that can be programmed to carry out a set of algorithms and arithmetic instructions. In terms of construction, each of these main components are attached to the motherboard and then put into a protective case—resembling the clean, polished look most of us are accustomed to seeing. Sure, most computers have their own distinct design - and different brands of hardware installed - but the components listed above are standard across all computers. This is by no means intended to be an invitation to disassemble your computer, nor is it a set of instructions to do so.
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