Basic Principles Of Analysis And Design Of An Rcc Framed Structures Pdf
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For an engineer who is new to designing multi-storey buildings it is important that they follow a logical sequence through the various stages of the design process. Six steps that define this sequence are described below. Rules of thumb are included within each step to help the designer quickly and efficiently arrive at a solution that is sensible for a given set of constraints.
Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. Become VIP Member. Do you need to remove the ads? The entire process of structural planning and design requires not only imagination and conceptual thinking but also sound knowledge of practical aspects, such as recent design codes and bye-laws, backed up by ample experience, institution and judgment. It is emphasized that any structure to be constructed must satisfy the need efficiency for which it is intended and shall be durable for its desired life span.
Thus, the design of any structure is categorizes into following two main types The structure to be constructed should primarily serve the basic purpose for which it is to be used and must have a pleasing look.
The building should provide happy environment inside as well as outside. Once the form of the structure is selected, the structural design process starts. Structural design is an art and science of understanding the behavior of structural members subjected to loads and designing them with economy and elegance to give a safe, serviceable and durable structure. After getting an architectural plan of the buildings, the structural planning of the building frame is done. This involves determination of the following.
The projection of columns outside the wall in the room should be avoided as they not only give bad appearance but also obstruct the use of floor space, creating problems in placing furniture flush with the wall. The width of the column is required to be kept not less than mm to prevent the column from being slender. The spacing of the column should be considerably reduced so that the load on column on each floor is less and the necessity of large sections for columns does not arise.
Orient the column so that the depth of the column is contained in the major plane of bending or is perpendicular to the major axis of bending. This is provided to increase moment of inertia and hence greater moment resisting capacity. Beams shall normally be provided under the walls or below a heavy concentrated load to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs.
Avoid larger spacing of beams from deflection and cracking criteria. The deflection varies directly with the cube of the span and inversely with the cube of the depth i. Consequently, increase in span L which results in greater deflection for larger span. This is decided by supporting arrangements.
When the supports are only on opposite edges or only in one direction, then the slab acts as a one way supported slab. The two way action of slab not only depends on the aspect ratio but also on the ratio of reinforcement on the directions. In one way slab, main steel is provided along with short span only and the load is transferred to two opposite supports.
The steel along the long span just acts as the distribution steel and is not designed for transferring the load but to distribute the load and to resist shrinkage and temperature stresses. A slab is made to act as a one way slab spanning across the short span by providing main steel along the short span and only distribution steel along the long span.
The provision of more steel in one direction increases the stiffness of the slab in that direction. According to elastic theory, the distribution of load being proportional to stiffness in two orthogonal directions, major load is transferred along the stiffer short span and the slab behaves as one way. Since, the slab is also supported over the short edge there is a tendency of the load on the slab by the side of support to get transferred to the nearer support causing tension at top across this short supporting edge.
Since, there does not exist any steel at top across this short edge in a one way slab interconnecting the slab and the side beam, cracks develop at the top along that edge. Therefore, care should be taken to provide minimum steel at top across the short edge support to avoid this cracking.
A two way slab is generally economical compare to one way slab because steel along both the spans acts as main steel and transfers the load to all its four supports. For short spans and light loads, steel required for two way slabs does not differ appreciably as compared to steel for two way slab because of the requirements of minimum steel. The type of footing depends upon the load carried by the column and the bearing capacity of the supporting soil.
The soil under the foundation is more susceptible to large variations. Even under one small building the soil may vary from soft clay to a hard murum.
The nature and properties of soil may change with season and weather, like swelling in wet weather. Increase in moisture content results in substantial loss of bearing capacity in case of certain soils which may lead to differential settlements.
It is necessary to conduct the survey in the areas for soil properties. For framed structure, isolated column footings are normally preferred except in case of exists for great depths, pile foundations can be an appropriate choice. If columns are very closely spaced and bearing capacity of the soil is low, raft foundation can be an alternative solution.
For a column on the boundary line, a combined footing or a raft footing may be provided. Sign Up Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. Have an account? Sign In Now. Free Signup or Login to continue Reading Remember Me! Don't have account, Sign Up Here. Forgot Password Lost your password? VIP Dashboard. Structural Planning 1.
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Structural analysis of RCC frame
They may contain viruses. Use online scanners here and here to upload downloaded attachment to check for safety. Analysis of RCC building. View previous topic :: View next topic. Which includes load on columns,beams slab, and design. I wanted to open my consultancy office in my town.
Reinforced concrete RC , also called reinforced cement concrete RCC , is a composite material in which concrete 's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel bars rebar and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed concrete in compression, reinforcement in tension , so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-story house he was constructing.
Analysis Methods for Buildings Frames
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