Drought And Desertification Climate Change Pdf

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drought and desertification climate change pdf

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The Sahel region of West Africa is well known as a region of environmental degradation.

Attention to land degradation and environmental pollution has increased significantly in the past 25 years, largely due to greater levels of international cooperation and recognition that local changes in land resources have global impacts. Despite this heightened global awareness, action to prevent or mitigate land degradation and drought at national or international levels has been limited, primarily because there are limited assessments regarding the cost of land degradation. Past global assessments have largely focused on the biophysical impacts of land degradation while little has been done to assess its global economic costs or the costs-versus-benefits of preventing or mitigating it.

The economics of desertification, land degradation, and drought

Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly arid. Throughout geological history, the development of deserts has occurred naturally; however, when deserts emerge due to unchecked depletion of nutrients in soil that are essential for it to remain arable, then a virtual "soil death" can be spoken of, [5] which traces its cause back to human overexploitation. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem with far-reaching socio-economic and political consequences. As recently as , considerable controversy existed over the proper definition of the term "desertification. However, this original understanding that desertification involved the physical expansion of deserts has been rejected as the concept has evolved. There exists also controversy around the sub-grouping of types of desertification, including, for example, the validity and usefulness of such terms as "man-made desert" and "non-pattern desert".

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. These regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to anthropogenic climate and land use change and are under threat of desertification.

One of the impacts which global warming may have on the surface of the Earth is to exacerbate the world-wide problem of desertification. A decrease in the total amount of precipitation in arid and semi-arid areas could increase the total area of drylands world-wide, and thus the total amount of land potentially at risk from desertification. In addition, desertification may enhance regional warming, through a variety of climate feedbacks. Desertification has been defined by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Rio de Janeiro, as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification involves the depletion of vegetation and soils. Land degradation occurs all over the world, but it is only referred to as desertification when it takes place in drylands.

The economics of desertification, land degradation, and drought

Metrics details. Worldwide, the arid regions have been experiencing cyclical droughts and devastation due to land desertification. A multi-criteria approach was proposed to establish the relationship between these pressures and assess their impact on the socio-economical, physical, and biological resources. This method was applied at local scale in the palm grove of Draa valley in southeastern Morocco. This paper aims to assess the socio-ecological impacts of drought and desertification, to develop a set of impact indicators of each phenomenon, and explore the relationship between drought and desertification.


Dryland areas in Africa are under threat from deforestation, soil erosion, nutrient mining, recurrent drought and climate change, potentially result- ing in land.


Desertification

A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric below-average precipitation , surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour.

Какое-то время в здании слышался только неровный гул расположенных далеко внизу генераторов. Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором. Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Но Стратмор смотрел на молодого сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности.

 Это похоже на цуккини, - пояснил он, - только корт поменьше. Она ткнула его локтем в бок. Левый крайний Джорджтауна, подавая угловой, отправил мяч в аут, и трибуны негодующе загудели. Защитники поспешили на свою половину поля.

Drought in the Sahel

Сьюзан прочитала открывшееся сообщение, которое состояло из одной строчки, потом прочитала его еще .

Drought in the Sahel

 - Ты найдешь терминал Хейла, а я тебя прикрою. Сьюзан была отвратительна даже мысль об. - Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо. Стратмор покачал головой.

Сьюзан понимала, что, по всей логике, именно ей предстояло решить эту задачу. Она вздохнула, надеясь, что ей не придется раскаиваться в том, чем она собиралась заняться. - Если все пойдет хорошо, то результат будет примерно через полчаса. - Тогда за дело, - сказал Стратмор, положил ей на плечо руку и повел в темноте в направлении Третьего узла. Над их головами куполом раскинулось усыпанное звездами небо.

Это кольцо - обман. - Червь удвоил скорость! - крикнула Соши.  - Штрафная санкция. На центральном экране прямо под извещением об ошибке ВР представила зрителям ужасающую картину. По мере того как рушилась третья защитная стенка, полдюжины черных линий, эти хакеры-мародеры, устремлялись вперед, неуклонно продвигаясь к сердцевине.

Единственное, что могло бы вызвать зацикливание протяженностью в восемнадцать часов, - это вирус. Больше нечему.

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